Bitcoin Halving: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research September 14, 2023

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  • Bitcoin "halving" is a process that reduces the block reward miners receive, occurring approximately every four years
  • The purpose of halving is to introduce scarcity and control the rate at which new Bitcoins enter circulation
  • The halving also keeps the total bitcoin supply from going over twenty-one million coins
  • Halving affects miners' economic incentives, profitability and can impact the mining landscape


Bitcoin "halving" is a process that reduces the block reward miners receive, occurring approximately every four years. Miners play a crucial role in securing the Bitcoin network and validating transactions. They are rewarded with newly minted bitcoins for associated efforts, which incentivizes them to contribute computational power. By halving the reward received, a gradual and predictable supply of new coins is ensured.

A Brief History

Bitcoin halving was included in the Bitcoin protocol from the beginning to control the issuance of new bitcoins. The first halving took place in 2012, reducing the block reward from 50 to 25 bitcoins. The second halving occurred in 2016, reducing the reward to 12.5 bitcoins. The most recent halving happened in 2020, further reducing the reward to 6.25 bitcoins.

Bitcoin Halving: Everything to Know

  • Purpose of Halving - The primary purpose of halving is to introduce scarcity by reducing the rate of new bitcoin issuance. This controlled supply is in contrast to traditional fiat currencies that can be subject to inflationary pressures.
  • Halving Schedule - Bitcoin halving occurs approximately every four years or after every 210,000 blocks. This schedule ensures that the total supply of bitcoins will never exceed twenty-one million coins, distinguishing it from other cryptocurrencies.
  • Impact on Miners - Halving significantly affects miners' economic incentives, as they receive fewer bitcoins as block rewards, which can impact profitability. Some miners may find it less viable to continue mining after halving, leading to changes in the mining landscape.
  • Mining Difficulty Adjustment - The protocol adjusts the mining difficulty approximately every two weeks to maintain network security. This adjustment ensures a consistent rate of block addition, even with fluctuations in the network's hash rate.
  • Price Impact - Bitcoin halving events generate attention and speculation. The reduction in block rewards creates a perception of scarcity, leading to increased demand. This, combined with a fixed or decreasing supply, has historically resulted in price rallies. However, other factors also influence Bitcoin's price.

Getting Started

To understand Bitcoin halving, it is important to grasp the basics of bitcoin mining. Mining involves creating new bitcoins and validating transactions on the Bitcoin network. Miners compete to solve complex mathematical puzzles, and the first one to find a solution is rewarded with newly minted bitcoins.

Bitcoin has a fixed supply of twenty-one million bitcoins, unlike traditional currencies that are printed by a central authority. Instead, bitcoins are generated through mining. Initially, the mining reward for a block was 50 bitcoins. However, to control the release and prevent inflation, Satoshi Nakamoto, the pseudonymous creator of Bitcoin, implemented halving.

Unique Aspects

Bitcoin halving refers to the reduction of the mining reward by half. This event happens approximately every four years or after every 210,000 mined blocks. The initial reward of 50 bitcoins per block was halved to 25 bitcoins in 2012, then halved again to 12.5 bitcoins in 2016. The most recent halving occurred in May 2020, decreasing the reward to 6.25 bitcoins.

The primary purpose of halving is to control the rate at which new bitcoins enter circulation. By reducing the block reward, halving ensures a gradual and predictable supply of new coins. This scarcity-driven model aims to mimic the properties of precious metals like gold, where limited supply contributes to value.

The effects of halving go beyond the immediate reduction in mining rewards. As the reward decreases, miners face significant impacts on profitability. With fewer bitcoins earned for each block mined, miners must manage operational costs carefully to remain profitable. This can lead to increased competition, improved mining efficiency and the development of specialized hardware to maximize computational power.

Moreover, Bitcoin halving directly influences the rate of inflation within the Bitcoin ecosystem. Inflation refers to the increase in the supply of a currency, which can erode value over time. Halving reduces the rate of new bitcoin issuance, helping maintain a controlled inflation rate. This deflationary aspect has attracted investors and bitcoin enthusiasts who see the cryptocurrency as a potential hedge against traditional fiat currencies.


  • Scarcity - Halving reduces the creation rate of new bitcoins, leading to a limited supply. This scarcity increases the perceived value of the cryptocurrency and has the potential to drive up the price over time.
  • Inflation Control - By halving the block reward for mining bitcoin, the cryptocurrency's inflation rate decreases. The controlled supply ensures that the introduction of new bitcoins into the market gradually slows down, making it less vulnerable to inflationary pressures.
  • Store of Value - Bitcoin's scarcity and controlled supply make it an attractive store of value. Unlike traditional fiat currencies that can lose value over time due to inflation, Bitcoin's limited supply makes it a potentially sound long-term investment.
  • Mining Efficiency - Halving events can incentivize miners to improve mining equipment and operations to remain profitable. This drive for efficiency can lead to advancements in mining technology, reducing energy consumption and increasing overall network security.
  • Market Confidence - The predictable nature of Bitcoin halving events can build confidence in the market. Participants know in advance when the supply of new bitcoins will decrease, creating a sense of stability and reducing uncertainty.


  • Mining Profitability - Halving events can significantly impact the profitability of bitcoin mining. As the block reward decreases, miners receive fewer bitcoins for mining efforts. This reduction in rewards can make mining less economically viable for smaller-scale miners and potentially lead to centralization in the mining industry.
  • Network Security - A decrease in mining profitability due to halving events may temporarily lower network security. If a significant number of miners shut down operations due to reduced rewards, the overall hash rate of the network could decrease, potentially making it more vulnerable to attacks.
  • Price Volatility - The anticipation and aftermath of Bitcoin halving events can introduce additional price volatility in the market. Speculative trading and market sentiment surrounding halving events can cause significant price fluctuations, making it challenging for investors to accurately predict short-term price movements.
  • Potential Forks - In some cases, halving events can increase the likelihood of chain splits or forks. Disagreements within the Bitcoin community regarding the protocol's direction or mining incentives can lead to the creation of alternative versions of Bitcoin. These forks can cause confusion and uncertainty among users and potentially dilute the network effect of the original Bitcoin blockchain.
  • Energy Consumption - Bitcoin mining already consumes a significant amount of energy. As the mining reward decreases through halving events, miners may struggle to cover operational costs, potentially impacting the ability to sustain energy-intensive mining activities.