zk-SNARKS: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research August 17, 2023

Image for zk-SNARKS: Everything to Know


  • zk-SNARKs are cryptographic proofs that enable privacy and scalability in cryptocurrencies through succinct verification
  • These were developed in 2014 as a solution to scalability and privacy issues in cryptocurrencies like bitcoin
  • Zcash became the first major cryptocurrency to implement zk-SNARKs in 2016, enabling private transactions
  • zk-SNARKs offer privacy, efficiency, scalability and security benefits, but also have challenges like trusted setup and complexity


zk-SNARKs are cryptographic proofs that enable privacy and scalability in cryptocurrencies through succinct verification. Specifically, zk-SNARKs are a cryptographic technique that allows one party, the prover, to demonstrate to another party, the verifier, that a statement is true without revealing any additional information. "SNARKs" stands for "Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge." It is an abbreviation used in cryptography to refer to a specific form of zero-knowledge proof technology.

A Brief History

The development of zk-SNARKs can be traced back to the work of a team of cryptographers led by Eli Ben-Sasson and Alessandro Chiesa. In 2014, they introduced the concept of zk-SNARKs as a solution to the scalability and privacy limitations faced by cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. Their breakthrough research laid the foundation for the application of zk-SNARKs in various blockchain networks.

In 2016, the Zcash project became the first major cryptocurrency to implement zk-SNARKs. Zcash aimed to provide users with the option to conduct private transactions while still benefiting from the decentralized and transparent nature of blockchain technology. zk-SNARKs played a crucial role in achieving this goal by allowing Zcash users to prove the validity of their transactions without revealing any sensitive information.

Since then, zk-SNARKs have garnered significant attention from both researchers and developers. Numerous projects, including Ethereum, have explored the integration of zk-SNARKs to enhance privacy, efficiency and scalability in their respective blockchain networks. The ongoing advancements in zk-SNARKs continue to push the boundaries of what is possible in the realm of secure and private transactions.

What are zk-SNARKs?

To comprehend zk-SNARKs, it is essential to understand the underlying components and how they work together. At a high level, zk-SNARKs consist of four main elements: A statement, a witness, a proof and a verification key.

The statement represents the claim that the prover aims to prove to the verifier. It could be a transaction, a computation or any other statement that requires verification. The witness contains the necessary information to prove the validity of the statement. It serves as input to the zk-SNARK algorithm.

The proof is a succinct mathematical representation generated by the prover. It attests to the truthfulness of the statement without revealing any sensitive data. The proof is constructed using cryptographic techniques and can be efficiently verified by the verifier using the verification key.

The verification key is a public parameter generated during the zk-SNARK setup phase. It allows the verifier to check the validity of the proof without needing any knowledge of the witness or the statement. This separation of the verification key from the proof ensures that sensitive information remains confidential while still enabling efficient verification.

zk-SNARKs rely on advanced mathematical concepts, such as elliptic curve pairings and homomorphic encryption, to achieve cryptographic magic. By leveraging these mathematical tools, zk-SNARKs enable the prover to convince the verifier of the truthfulness of a statement while maintaining privacy and efficiency.

Getting Started

To understand zk-SNARKs, it's essential to grasp the basic principles of zero-knowledge proofs. Zero-knowledge proofs enable one party, known as the prover, to convince another party, the verifier, that a particular statement is true without revealing any additional information beyond the statement's validity. With zero-knowledge proof users gain the verification of data without revealing the actual data itself. This concept is akin to a magician performing a trick without disclosing the secret behind it.

Unique Aspects

zk-SNARKs bring several unique aspects to the table. Firstly, they are succinct, meaning that the proof generated by the prover is very short, regardless of the complexity of the statement being proven. This efficiency is crucial for scalability, as it allows blockchain networks to process and verify transactions quickly, even as the network grows.

Secondly, zk-SNARKs are non-interactive, which means that the prover and verifier do not need to engage in a back-and-forth communication process. This aspect eliminates the need for multiple rounds of interaction, making zk-SNARKs highly efficient.

Another notable aspect of zk-SNARKs is their ability to ensure privacy. With zk-SNARKs, it is possible to prove the validity of a statement without revealing the underlying data or computation. This privacy-preserving feature is particularly valuable in the context of financial transactions, where individuals want to protect their sensitive and private information.

Furthermore, zk-SNARKs provide strong security guarantees. The cryptographic techniques employed in zk-SNARKs make them resistant to attacks and tampering attempts. This ensures the integrity and reliability of the information being proven, making zk-SNARKs a robust tool for building secure and trustworthy systems.


  • Privacy: zk-SNARKs enables users to prove the validity of a transaction or computation without revealing any underlying details. This ensures privacy by hiding sensitive information such as transaction amounts, addresses, and smart contract logic. The ability to conduct transactions privately is particularly important in preserving user confidentiality and protecting sensitive business data.
  • Scalability: With zk-SNARKs, the verification process becomes extremely efficient. Instead of verifying the entire transaction history, nodes only need to verify the validity of the zk-SNARK proof. This significantly reduces the computational burden and allows blockchain networks to scale more effectively, accommodating a larger number of transactions without sacrificing security.
  • Auditable Transparency: Despite preserving privacy, zk-SNARKs also offer a form of auditable transparency. While transaction details remain hidden, the proof generated by zk-SNARKs can be publicly verified by anyone. This enables external parties to independently verify the validity of transactions and ensures that the blockchain operates according to the expected rules without relying on trust alone.
  • Interoperability: zk-SNARKs can be used across different blockchain platforms, allowing for interoperability between various cryptocurrencies. This means that zk-SNARKs-based privacy and scalability solutions can be implemented in multiple networks, enhancing the overall privacy and efficiency of the cryptocurrency ecosystem as a whole.


  • Trusted Setup: One of the main challenges with zk-SNARKs is the requirement for a trusted setup phase. During this phase, a set of initial parameters must be generated in a way that ensures the security of the system. However, if these parameters are compromised or created maliciously, they can undermine the entire security of the zk-SNARKs implementation. The trusted setup phase is a critical aspect that demands careful attention and transparency to mitigate potential risks.
  • Complexity: Implementing zk-SNARKs requires a deep understanding of advanced cryptographic concepts and algorithms. The complexity of zk-SNARKs can make it challenging for developers to integrate this technology into their projects. Additionally, auditing and verifying the correctness of zk-SNARKs implementations can be a complex task, requiring specialized knowledge and expertise.
  • Performance Overhead: While zk-SNARKs offer significant advantages, they come with a performance overhead. Generating and verifying zk-SNARK proofs can be computationally intensive, requiring substantial computational resources. This can potentially impact transaction processing times and increase the resource requirements for nodes participating in the network. Striking a balance between privacy and performance is crucial to ensure the practicality of zk-SNARKs in real-world scenarios.
  • Limited Applicability: Although zk-SNARKs provide strong privacy guarantees, they may not be suitable for all use cases. Certain applications and industries may have specific regulatory or compliance requirements that conflict with the level of privacy offered by zk-SNARKs. It is essential to carefully consider the trade-offs and ensure that the chosen privacy solution aligns with the specific needs and constraints of the intended use case.