Who Owns Bitcoin? Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research October 3, 2023

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  • Exploring bitcoin ownership requires a closer look at how the world's most popular cryptocurrency operates within the decentralized digital realm
  • Ownership of bitcoin is tied to cryptographic keys, not physical entities, and can be categorized into various associated groups
  • Bitcoin transactions are recorded on a public ledger called "the blockchain," and ownership is maintained by possession of a private key
  • Bitcoin offers advantages like pseudonymity, security and ownership control, but also has disadvantages such as volatility, regulatory uncertainty and irreversibility


Bitcoin ownership is the state of having control over a certain amount of bitcoin cryptocurrency. Ownership is determined by the possession of private keys, which are cryptographic keys that provide access to specific bitcoin addresses on the blockchain. These keys are stored in digital wallets, and individuals can have varying degrees of ownership, ranging from small fractions to substantial amounts of bitcoin.

A Brief History

To understand bitcoin ownership, it is important to explore the cryptocurrency's history. Initially, ownership was limited to a small group involved in development and mining. As Bitcoin gained traction, it attracted a broader user base.

In the early years, mining was easy, and early adopters accumulated significant amounts of bitcoin. However, as the network grew, mining became more difficult. This led to specialized mining hardware and "mining pools," where miners combine computing power to increase chances of earning bitcoin rewards.

It is important to note that Bitcoin operates on a decentralized network, meaning there is no central authority governing ownership, and transactions are recorded on a public ledger called "the blockchain" to ensure transparency and security.

Who Owns Bitcoin?: Everything to Know

Bitcoin ownership is tied to cryptographic keys, not physical entities like traditional assets. These keys consist of a "private key," which is kept secret, and a "public key," which is shared to receive funds. The private key signs transactions and proves ownership, while the public key serves as an address for receiving bitcoin.

Bitcoin addresses can be linked to individuals or entities, but the actual identities remain pseudonymous. Transactions are recorded on the blockchain, but determining real-world identities is challenging without additional information.

Bitcoin ownership can be categorized into several groups:

  • Individual Investors . Many people own bitcoin as an investment, either for long-term potential or portfolio diversification. Individual investors hold bitcoin in personal wallets, which can be software-based or hardware devices.
  • Exchanges and Custodial Services . Cryptocurrency exchanges provide platforms for buying, selling and trading bitcoin. When users deposit bitcoin on an exchange, the exchange holds it on behalf of the users. Custodial services cater to institutional investors who prefer storing bitcoin with a trusted third party.
  • Institutional Investors . Hedge funds, asset management firms and corporations have shown interest in bitcoin, and they hold the cryptocurrency as part of investment strategies or explore associated potential use cases. Institutional investors acquire bitcoin through regulated platforms and custodial services.
  • Miners . Miners validate transactions and add them to the blockchain. They earn newly minted bitcoin and transaction fees as a reward. Some miners choose to hold the bitcoin they earn.
  • Lost and Dormant bitcoin . Some bitcoin is lost due to forgotten passwords or hardware failures. Dormant bitcoin addresses have not been used for a long time, possibly due to lost interest or the owner's passing.

Getting Started

To understand bitcoin ownership, it is important to grasp the basics of how the cryptocurrency works. Bitcoin transactions are recorded on the blockchain, and this public ledger is maintained by a network of computers called "nodes," which validate and store transactions. Each transaction on the Bitcoin network consists of "inputs" and "outputs." Inputs are the funds being spent, while outputs represent the new ownership of those funds.

When someone wants to send bitcoin to another person, they create a transaction that includes the recipient's address as one of the outputs. The transaction is then broadcast to the network, and the nodes verify the validity. This verification process ensures that the sender has enough funds and that the transaction follows the rules of the Bitcoin protocol. Once the transaction is confirmed by the network, the recipient becomes the new owner of the bitcoin.

Unique Aspects

A unique aspect of bitcoin ownership is the use of cryptographic keys. Bitcoin employs a cryptographic algorithm called "public-key cryptography," which generates two keys: a public key and a private key. The public key is derived from the private key, but it cannot be used to determine the private key. On the other hand, the private key is kept secret and is used to sign transactions, proving ownership of the associated bitcoin.

With bitcoin, ownership is not tied to personal identification like a name or social security number. Instead, it is tied to the possession of the private key. As long as the owner is in possession of the private key, they have control over the associated bitcoin. This aspect of ownership maintains the privacy and pseudonymity offered by bitcoin, allowing users to transact without revealing true identities and offering a certain level of anonymity.

Another important aspect of bitcoin ownership is the responsibility it entails. Bitcoin transactions are irreversible, so losing access to the private key means losing control over the associated bitcoin. There is no central authority to help one recover lost keys or reverse transactions. This aspect of ownership gives individuals full control over funds but also places the burden of security on the users themselves. Safeguarding private keys and using secure storage methods is crucial to prevent unauthorized access or loss.

Additionally, the decentralized nature of the Bitcoin network ensures that ownership is distributed among participants. Unlike traditional financial systems where ownership is concentrated in the hands of a few institutions, bitcoin allows anyone to participate and own the cryptocurrency. The distributed nature of ownership in bitcoin contributes to the resilience and censorship resistance. No single entity or group can control the network or manipulate ownership records.


  • Pseudonymity . Bitcoin transactions are pseudonymous, allowing users to send and receive funds without revealing real identities. This provides privacy and security as personal information is not directly linked to transactions.
  • Accessibility . Ownership of bitcoin is not limited by geographical boundaries. Anyone with internet access can participate and own bitcoin. This inclusivity allows individuals from underserved regions to access and use a digital currency without relying on traditional banking systems.
  • Security . Cryptographic algorithms and a decentralized network of computers called "miners" secure bitcoin ownership. This eliminates the need for intermediaries like banks, reducing the risk of fraud, censorship and third-party control over funds.
  • Ownership Control . With bitcoin, individuals have full control over personal funds. Unlike traditional financial systems where banks can freeze accounts or impose restrictions, bitcoin owners have sole authority to manage and transact with digital assets.
  • Global Transactions . Bitcoin enables fast and low-cost cross-border transactions. Traditional methods of transferring money internationally can be time-consuming and expensive, involving multiple intermediaries and fees. Bitcoin transactions, on the other hand, can be completed within minutes and often incur lower fees, making it attractive for global remittances.


  • Volatility . Bitcoin's value is known for volatility, experiencing significant price fluctuations over short periods. This volatility can be attributed to factors like market speculation, regulatory changes and investor sentiment. While some see this as an investment opportunity, others may find it challenging to use bitcoin as a stable store of value or medium of exchange.
  • Regulatory Uncertainty . The regulatory landscape for cryptocurrencies, including bitcoin, is still evolving. Different countries have different approaches, from embracing and regulating cryptocurrencies to imposing restrictions or outright bans. This uncertainty can create challenges for individuals and businesses adopting bitcoin, as compliance requirements and legal considerations may vary across jurisdictions.
  • Irreversibility . Once a bitcoin transaction is confirmed on the blockchain, it is virtually irreversible. While this enhances security by preventing fraudulent chargebacks, it also means that if funds are sent to the wrong address or a transaction is made in error, it may be difficult or impossible to recover the funds.
  • Energy Consumption . Bitcoin mining, the process of creating new bitcoins and validating transactions, requires significant computational power. This has raised concerns about the environmental impact of bitcoin mining, with critics arguing that it contributes to climate change through substantial energy consumption.
  • Scalability . Bitcoin's original design limits the transaction throughput, resulting in slower confirmations and higher fees during periods of increased network activity. This scalability challenge has led to the development of alternative cryptocurrencies and layer 2 solutions that aim to address these limitations.