Who Invented Bitcoin? Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research October 9, 2023

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  • Bitcoin, the first cryptocurrency, was introduced in January 2009 on SourceForge by an anonymous person or group known as Satoshi Nakamoto
  • Although Nakamoto is a Japanese name, Nakamoto is believed to be an American or European individual or group of cryptographers or software developers
  • Nakamoto preceded the launch of Bitcoin by registering the domain name bitcoin.org with Sirius, aka Martti Malmi, and publishing a white paper, both in 2008
  • One of Nakamoto's motives for introducing Bitcoin was to popularize blockchain technology, a decentralized digital ledger to record transactions


Bitcoin, the first cryptocurrency, was introduced in January 2009 on SourceForge by an anonymous person or group known as Satoshi Nakamoto.

Nakamoto's written statements regarding digital assets and understanding of cryptography and software development are advanced. This has led government investigators and members of the crypto community to believe that Nakamoto is a cryptographer and/or software developer.

Bitcoin relies on the practice of mining, or the proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanism. This involves individuals or groups using specialized computer equipment to solve complex mathematical problems to record digital transactions on the blockchain. Miners earn coins such as bitcoin through this practice. Nakamoto's encouragement of blockchain technology through Bitcoin has promoted the practice of mining. Nakamoto is believed to have been active in developing Bitcoin until mid 2010.

A Brief History

The history of cryptocurrency dates back to the late 20th century, when computer scientists and cryptographers started exploring the concept of digital cash. Nakamoto claims to have started writing code to create Bitcoin in 2007. On October 31, 2008, Nakamoto published a whitepaper titled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System."

The document outlined the principles and mechanics of Bitcoin. On January 9, 2009, Nakamoto released version 0.1 of the Bitcoin software program on SourceForge. As Bitcoin's popularity grew and the platform became more advanced, Nakamoto remained in charge of all changes to the source code. In mid 2010, Nakamoto gave other individuals involved in the platform control over making changes to the code. As of late September 2023, the Bitcoin site is an independent open source project.

Who Invented Bitcoin? Everything to Know

Nakamoto introduced Bitcoin as an open-source project, inviting collaboration and contributions from a digital community of cryptographers and software developers. Nakamoto's white paper contains a detailed explanation of the cryptographic principles, decentralized nature and consensus mechanism that underpin Bitcoin. Nakamoto's vision was to create a peer-to-peer electronic cash system that could operate without intermediaries or central authorities.

To realize this vision, Nakamoto implemented several key technologies. The most crucial of these is the blockchain, a distributed ledger that records all bitcoin transactions. The blockchain ensures transparency and security. It also prevents double-spending, spending digital currency more than once on the network.

Nakamoto also introduced the concept of mining. Miners are rewarded with newly minted Bitcoins as a reward for creating blocks in the blockchain. Nakamoto's innovation extended beyond the technical aspects of creating Bitcoin. Nakamoto also implemented a deflationary monetary policy to limit the total supply of Bitcoins to 21 million.

Scarcity has played a significant role in Bitcoin's value appreciation over time. Nakamoto designed Bitcoin to be decentralized, meaning no single entity or authority controls the network. The decentralized nature enhances security and resilience. It eliminates a central point of failure or censorship.

Nakamoto's identity and true motives have remained a subject of fascination and speculation. Numerous individuals, including computer scientists, cryptographers and entrepreneurs, have been suspected of being Nakamoto. Yet none have confirmed that they are Nakamoto.

Getting Started

  • Whitepaper in October 2008. Nakamoto introduced the principles of Bitcoin in this document.
  • Launch in January 2009. Nakamoto then retained control over much of Bitcoin's operations and development for approximately one and a half years.
  • Personal gain. It is not clear how much Nakamoto currently holds in bitcoin, but they are believed to hold over 750,000 coins. The creation of Bitcoin has earned them an appreciable amount of digital assets.
  • Achievement of personal goals. By creating Bitcoin, Nakamoto has accomplished a number of goals to alter traditional financial systems, including decentralization and the promotion of cryptography.

Unique Aspects

  • Motives include creating personal wealth, encouraging the development of blockchain technology, heightening the importance of cryptography and making financial instruments globally accessible. Nakamoto achieved all of these goals through creating Bitcoin.
  • Supposedly limited involvement in the project. The fact that Nakamoto appears to have willingly given up control of Bitcoin indicates they want to see other leaders guide the platform.
  • Places a high value on privacy and personal security. The fact that Nakamoto has not come forward indicates that they perceive their privacy and security to be worth a great deal. This may explain another of Nakamoto's motives, to encourage other actors in the financial space to be more anonymous and for financial instruments to operate more covertly.


  • Private and secure: Nakamoto has indicated that they are willing to give up control of the most widely used and most valuable cryptocurrency because they value their privacy and security. Further, while transactions are recorded on the blockchain, user's identities are not directly linked to their real identities. Instead, Bitcoin gives users addresses. This protects users' privacy to a limited extent.
  • Promotion of decentralization: Nakamoto has promoted decentralization by encouraging the spread of Bitcoin.
  • Advancing blockchain technology: Nakamoto has helped blockchain technology advance, particularly for financial uses.
  • Discouragement of censorship: Nakamoto has discouraged censorship by encouraging the shift of financial activity to digital platforms, including Bitcoin.
  • Pushing the importance of cryptography: The launch of Bitcoin means that cryptographic techniques are seen as more valuable. Bitcoin relies on cryptography to secure the blockchain.
  • Values global accessibility: Nakamoto designed Bitcoin to operate on the internet. This means they value the fact that the platform can easily engage in cross-border fund transfers and not rely on traditional banking systems. This type of function is useful in countries with limited banking options. It is also valuable in countries in which the national government uses banks and regulation to severely restrict the financial activities of individuals and groups.
  • Theoretically, an interest in lower transaction fees: Bitcoin is designed to have lower transaction fees than banks. This promoted Bitcoin and rewarded users financially. Users typically pay a small transaction fee to incentivize crypto miners. The fee can increase when the platform gets congestion.


  • Concern over motives: Governments are sometimes critical of Nakamoto because Bitcoin limits the power of government and financial institutions like banks.
  • Lack of clarity regarding involvement: Although Nakamoto said that they stopped working on Bitcoin, it is not clear whether they actually stopped modifying code and engaging with the project.
  • Frustration or adding to environmental concerns : Bitcoin mining requires significant computational power and consumes a substantial amount of energy. This raises concerns about its environmental impact. Some regions are exploring renewable energy solutions. Some are upset with Nakamoto, promoters of Bitcoin and administrators of other cryptocurrencies that rely on PoW consensus mechanisms.
  • Questions about Nakamoto's wealth: It is unclear what projects Nakamoto wants to advance, what roles they play and how they are meeting their goals.
  • Frustration about volatility: All cryptocurrencies experience volatility, typically to a greater extent than fiat or traditional currencies. Some are frustrated with Nakamoto for introducing more volatility to the global financial market.