TRC-20: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research November 3, 2023

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  • TRC-20 is a cryptocurrency token standard on the Tron blockchain, enabling the creation and seamless transfer of digital assets
  • It was introduced in 2018 on the Tron blockchain as the equivalent of ERC-20 on Ethereum
  • TRC-20 tokens are fungible, compatible with the Tron Virtual Machine (TVM), offer low transaction fees and inherit the security and transparency of the Tron blockchain
  • Advantages of TRC-20 tokens include scalability and low transaction fees, but disadvantages include limited exposure and support outside of the Tron ecosystem


TRC-20 is a cryptocurrency token standard on the Tron blockchain, enabling the creation and seamless transfer of digital assets. TRC-20 tokens are similar to Ethereum's ERC-20 tokens and adhere to a set of rules and standards that enable the creation and operation of fungible tokens on the Tron network.

These tokens can represent various digital assets, and they can be easily transferred, bought and sold within the Tron ecosystem. TRC-20 tokens have gained popularity for utility in crowdfunding and building decentralized applications (dapps) on the Tron blockchain.

A Brief History

To understand TRC-20, we need to look at the predecessor, ERC-20. The ERC-20 token standard is the most widely used on the Ethereum blockchain. Introduced in 2015 by Fabian Vogelsteller and Vitalik Buterin, ERC-20 tokens gained popularity for compatibility with smart contracts and ease of creation and trading.

Inspired by ERC-20's success, the Tron community introduced TRC-20 in 2018 as the equivalent standard for tokens on Tron. This allowed developers to harness smart contracts and create unique tokens within the Tron ecosystem.

TRC-20: Everything to Know

TRC-20 tokens resemble ERC-20 tokens in many ways. They are fungible, meaning each token is interchangeable with another of the same type, and this interchangeability makes TRC-20 tokens suitable for representing assets like currencies, commodities or virtual items within dapps.

One advantage of TRC-20 tokens is compatibility with the Tron Virtual Machine (TVM). TVM is a lightweight and efficient virtual machine that executes smart contracts on the Tron network. By utilizing TVM, TRC-20 tokens seamlessly integrate with other Tron-based dapps, enabling developers to build complex and innovative projects.

TRC-20 tokens also offer low transaction fees. Tron's highly scalable blockchain can handle a large number of transactions per second, making token transfers within the Tron network faster and more cost-effective than some other blockchains. This makes TRC-20 tokens attractive for use cases such as microtransactions and decentralized exchange (DEX) platforms.

Additionally, TRC-20 tokens inherit the security and transparency of the Tron blockchain. Every transaction involving TRC-20 tokens is recorded and verified by a network of nodes, ensuring security and eliminating the need for intermediaries in token transfers.

Developers can utilize the Tron development toolkit to create TRC-20 tokens. The toolkit provides tools and libraries that simplify the token creation process and enable developers to define token parameters such as total supply, name, symbol and decimal places. It also offers features for managing token transfers, balances and other token-related functionalities.

Getting Started

To grasp TRC-20, it is important to first understand "blockchain" technology. Blockchain is a distributed ledger that records and verifies transactions across a network of computers. It offers transparency, security and decentralization, making it an ideal platform for digital assets.

TRC-20 is a technical standard for creating and implementing tokens on the Tron blockchain. Tron, founded by Justin Sun, is a decentralized platform aiming to revolutionize the entertainment industry through blockchain technology, and TRC-20 tokens are compatible with TVM, enabling the execution of smart contracts on the Tron network.

Creating a TRC-20 token involves deploying a smart contract on the Tron blockchain. Smart contracts are self-executing contracts with terms written directly into code. Specifically, they automatically execute transactions and enforce the defined rules. TRC-20 tokens can represent various digital assets, including utility tokens, security tokens and stablecoins.

Unique Aspects

TRC-20 tokens have unique aspects, such as compatibility with the Tron ecosystem. Tron offers fast and scalable transactions, capable of handling thousands of transactions per second, and this high throughput makes the platform attractive to developers and users.

Additionally, TRC-20 tokens benefit from the Tron network's low transaction fees. Compared to other blockchains, Tron offers significantly lower fees, making it cost-effective for token transfers and interactions with smart contracts. This affordability enhances the usability and accessibility of TRC-20 tokens, particularly for microtransactions or frequent token transfers.

Another notable aspect is Tron's focus on decentralization and community governance. Tron empowers community members by allowing token holders to participate in decision-making. TRC-20 token holders can vote on proposals and changes to the Tron network, ensuring a democratic and decentralized approach to governance.

TRC-20 tokens also inherit the security features of the Tron blockchain. Tron utilizes a delegated proof-of-stake (DPoS) consensus mechanism, wherein a limited number of elected nodes validate transactions and secure the network. This mechanism ensures fast transaction finality and protection against malicious activities, providing a secure environment for TRC-20 tokens and users.

Furthermore, TRC-20 tokens can leverage the existing infrastructure and services within the Tron ecosystem. Developers can utilize Tron's developer tools, libraries and documentation to build and deploy innovative dapps that seamlessly interact with TRC-20 tokens. This ecosystem fosters collaboration, creativity and growth within the TRON community.


  • Adoption - TRC-20 tokens are used within the Tron ecosystem, creating a strong network effect.
  • Interoperability - Easy integration with other Tron-based applications and smart contracts is facilitated with TRC-20, as the tokens work well with the Tron blockchain. This enables the development of complex dapps that utilize TRC-20 tokens.
  • High Scalability - The Tron blockchain can handle a large number of transactions, making it suitable for scalable projects. TRC-20 tokens can take advantage of this scalability, ensuring efficient transfers even during high network congestion.
  • Fast Transactions - Tron's focus on fast transactions allows for quick processing of TRC-20 token transfers. This is particularly beneficial for applications requiring near-instant transaction confirmations, such as micropayments or DEX.
  • Cost-Effective - TRC-20 tokens have lower transaction fees compared to some other blockchains. This cost-effectiveness benefits projects involving frequent token transfers or microtransactions by reducing overhead costs.


  • Limited Ecosystem - While TRC-20 tokens are popular within the Tron ecosystem, they may have limited exposure and support outside of it. This can pose challenges for projects seeking integration and partnerships in the wider cryptocurrency landscape.
  • Dependency on TRON - TRC-20 tokens rely on the Tron blockchain's infrastructure and governance. Therefore, any issues or vulnerabilities in the Tron network could impact the functionality and security of TRC-20 tokens.
  • Centralization Concerns - Tron has been criticized for perceived centralization, which may affect the perception and adoption of TRC-20 tokens compared to other blockchain platforms.
  • Smart Contract Risks - Because they are based on smart contracts, TRC-20 tokens are at risk from vulnerabilities and bugs. Improperly audited or insecure smart contracts can lead to issues like token theft or manipulation, so projects issuing TRC-20 tokens need to ensure thorough auditing and security measures to mitigate these risks.
  • Regulatory Uncertainty - Like any cryptocurrency, TRC-20 tokens face regulatory uncertainty. Different jurisdictions have varying stances on cryptocurrencies, impacting the legal and regulatory environment surrounding TRC-20 tokens. Projects using TRC-20 tokens must navigate these regulatory landscapes carefully.