The Graph: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research August 24, 2023

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  • The Graph is a cryptocurrency network that enables developers to access and index blockchain data efficiently
  • It was founded in 2017 to provide a decentralized indexing and querying solution for blockchain data
  • The project consists of subgraphs, indexers, and curators, enabling efficient data retrieval and optimized dapps
  • The Graph's decentralized network ensures data integrity, community-driven development and cross-chain compatibility


The Graph is a cryptocurrency network that enables developers to access and index blockchain data efficiently. The Graph, often referred to as "GRT," is an open-source indexing and querying protocol that allows developers to efficiently access blockchain data. It provides a decentralized infrastructure that indexes and organizes data from different blockchains, making it easily searchable and accessible through a standardized API. By abstracting away the complexities of interacting with blockchains directly, The Graph simplifies the development process for dapps, enabling developers to focus on building user-friendly applications.

A Brief History

The Graph project was founded in 2017 by Yaniv Tal, Brandon Ramirez, and Jannis Pohlmann. They recognized the need for a decentralized indexing and querying solution to overcome the limitations of centralized infrastructure. The project gained significant traction and support from the crypto community, leading to a successful token sale in 2020.

The Graph: Everything to Know

At its core, The Graph consists of three main components: Subgraphs, indexers and curators. Subgraphs are the building blocks of The Graph and define how data from a specific blockchain is indexed and made available for querying. Indexers are network participants who allocate resources to index and serve data from specific subgraphs. They earn rewards based on the quality and availability of the data they provide. Curators, on the other hand, play a role in signaling the relevance and importance of specific subgraphs by staking GRT tokens.

Developers interact with The Graph by deploying subgraphs, which define the data they want to index and expose through APIs. The Graph's powerful query language, known as GraphQL, allows developers to retrieve specific subsets of data efficiently. By utilizing GraphQL, developers can avoid the need for complex API calls and retrieve only the data they require, resulting in more efficient and optimized dapps.

The Graph Network, powered by the GRT token, ensures the security and decentralization of the protocol. Participants can earn GRT tokens by indexing and serving data or by curating and signaling the importance of specific subgraphs. This incentivizes network participants to provide high-quality data and maintain the integrity of the indexing process.

The Graph has gained significant adoption within the blockchain community, with various popular dapps and protocols integrating its indexing and querying capabilities. By leveraging The Graph, developers can access real-time and historical data from multiple blockchains, enabling them to create dynamic and interactive dApps with ease. This level of data accessibility opens up a world of possibilities for blockchain-based applications, ranging from decentralized finance (DeFi) platforms to non-fungible token (NFT) marketplaces.

Getting Started

To interact with The Graph, developers can utilize the Graph Explorer, a user-friendly interface that allows them to search and explore existing subgraphs. A subgraph is a collection of data that defines how specific blockchain data should be indexed and made available for querying. Developers can select a subgraph that aligns with their application's needs or even create their own custom subgraphs.

Once a suitable subgraph is chosen, developers can integrate it into their applications using The Graph's GraphQL API. GraphQL is a query language that enables precise and efficient data retrieval, allowing developers to request only the data they require. This flexibility empowers developers to build dynamic and responsive applications that can quickly adapt to changing user needs.

Unique Aspects

One of the notable features of The Graph is its decentralized network of Indexers, Curators and Delegators. Indexers are responsible for processing and indexing data from various blockchains, while Curators curate and verify the quality of the indexed data. Delegators, on the other hand, can delegate their GRT (The Graph's native token) to Indexers, earning a portion of the indexing rewards in return.

This decentralized model ensures the integrity and reliability of the indexed data. By distributing the indexing process among multiple participants, The Graph reduces the risk of data manipulation or censorship. It also incentivizes Indexers to compete for quality and efficiency, leading to a more robust and accurate data indexing ecosystem.

Another unique aspect of The Graph is its focus on community-driven development. Anyone can create and deploy a subgraph, making it easier for developers to contribute to the ecosystem. This open approach fosters innovation and enables the creation of diverse and specialized subgraphs, catering to various use cases and blockchain networks.

Furthermore, The Graph supports multiple blockchains, including Ethereum, IPFS, and more. This cross-chain compatibility allows developers to leverage The Graph's indexing capabilities across different blockchain ecosystems, expanding the reach and potential of their applications.


  • Efficient Data Retrieval - The Graph enables developers to efficiently retrieve specific data from blockchains by indexing and organizing it in a way that allows for quick queries. This makes it easier for dapps to access information without having to process the entire blockchain.
  • Developer-Friendly - The Graph provides a user-friendly interface and tools that simplify the process of building dapps. It offers a GraphQL-based querying language that developers are already familiar with, making it easier to interact with blockchain data.
  • Interoperability - The Graph supports multiple blockchains, allowing developers to access and query data from various networks. This interoperability reduces the need for developers to build custom solutions for each blockchain, saving time and effort.
  • Cost-Effective - By using The Graph, developers can offload the computational burden of indexing and querying blockchain data to the protocol's decentralized network of indexers. This reduces the costs associated with running and maintaining infrastructure for data retrieval.
  • Decentralization - The Graph operates as a decentralized protocol, meaning that data indexing and retrieval are performed by a network of independent participants called indexers. This decentralized approach enhances security and censorship resistance, as there is no single point of failure or control.


  • Centralization of Indexers - While The Graph aims to be decentralized, the reality is that a small number of indexers may dominate the network due to factors such as computational resources and reputation. This concentration of power could potentially undermine the protocol's decentralization principles.
  • Data Availability - The Graph relies on indexers to provide data to the network. If an indexer fails to index or update data properly, it may result in incomplete or inaccurate information being retrieved by dapps. Ensuring high-quality and reliable data availability can be a challenge.
  • Scalability - As the usage of The Graph increases, the protocol may face scalability challenges in handling large amounts of data and serving a growing number of dapps. Scaling solutions will be crucial to maintaining efficient data retrieval and query performance.
  • Governance - The Graph's governance model may pose challenges in terms of decision-making and protocol upgrades. Effective governance is essential to ensure the protocol's long-term sustainability and the alignment of stakeholders' interests.