The Graph: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research August 10, 2023

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  • The Graph is a decentralized protocol that enables developers to efficiently access and query data from blockchains in a scalable manner
  • It was founded in 2017 and has gained rapid growth and adoption in the crypto community
  • The Graph consists of three main components: Indexers, Curators and Delegators, which play different roles in processing, indexing and maintaining data
  • Centralization of indexers, query costs and scalability challenges are some of The Graph's challenges


The Graph is a decentralized protocol that enables developers to efficiently access and query data from blockchains in a scalable manner. It is a decentralized protocol that acts as an indexing and querying layer for blockchain data. This aims to make blockchain data more accessible by organizing and indexing information from various blockchains, including Ethereum, Polkadot and others. By doing so, The Graph enables developers to efficiently search and retrieve specific data from the blockchain using GraphQL, a query language for APIs.

A Brief History

The Graph was founded in 2017 by Yaniv Tal, Jannis Pohlmann, and Brandon Ramirez. The project gained traction and raised funds through a token sale in 2017, followed by a successful mainnet launch in December 2020. Since then, The Graph has experienced rapid growth and adoption within the crypto community.

The Graph: Everything to Know

At its core, The Graph consists of three main components: the Indexer, the Curator, and the Delegator. Indexers are responsible for processing and indexing data from blockchains, making it easily searchable. They allocate resources, such as computing power and storage, to maintain and operate subgraphs, which are specific datasets that developers can query.

Curators play a vital role in The Graph ecosystem by signaling which subgraphs are valuable and trustworthy. They stake the native GRT token to signal support for specific subgraphs, indicating quality and reliability. Curators are incentivized to select high-quality subgraphs as they can earn rewards based on the popularity and usage of the subgraphs they support.

Delegators, on the other hand, contribute to the security and decentralization of The Graph network by staking their GRT tokens with Indexers. In return, they receive a portion of the rewards earned by the Indexers they delegate to. This mechanism encourages a distributed network of participants who collectively ensure the integrity and reliability of The Graph's indexing and querying functionality.

Developers can leverage The Graph's infrastructure to build decentralized applications (dapps) and access blockchain data in a more efficient manner. By using GraphQL, developers can define the specific data they need and retrieve it from the blockchain without having to write complex and time-consuming queries.

The Graph has gained significant popularity within the decentralized finance (DeFi) space. Many DeFi projects rely on The Graph to index and query data related to token prices, liquidity pools, user transactions and more. This enables developers to build innovative DeFi applications that provide real-time and accurate information to users.

Getting Started

To get started with The Graph, developers need to interact with three main components: subgraphs, indexing nodes, and query nodes. Subgraphs define the data schema and indexing requirements for a specific dapp. Developers create and deploy subgraphs to index and organize relevant data on the blockchain. Indexing nodes are responsible for processing and indexing the data according to the defined subgraphs. They store the indexed data and make it available for querying. Query nodes, on the other hand, enable users to retrieve data from the indexed subgraphs efficiently.

Developers can create subgraphs using The Graph's GraphQL schema language. This allows them to define the specific data they need and how it should be structured. Once a subgraph is defined, developers can deploy it to the network and indexing nodes will start processing and indexing the associated blockchain data. This indexing process is crucial as it makes the data easily accessible for querying purposes.

Unique Aspects

One of the unique aspects of The Graph is its decentralized nature. The protocol operates on a decentralized network of indexing and query nodes, ensuring high availability and fault tolerance. This decentralized architecture eliminates the reliance on a single centralized entity for data retrieval, making the system more robust and censorship-resistant.

Another notable feature of The Graph is its use of GraphQL, a powerful query language for APIs. GraphQL allows developers to specify the exact data they need and retrieve it in a single request, reducing network overhead and improving efficiency. The Graph leverages GraphQL to enable developers and users to query indexed data efficiently. This approach provides a flexible and intuitive way to interact with blockchain data, making it easier for developers to build decentralized applications.

Furthermore, The Graph supports a wide range of blockchain networks, including Ethereum, Polkadot and Binance Smart Chain, among others. This multi-chain compatibility allows developers to leverage The Graph's capabilities across different blockchain ecosystems, enhancing interoperability and expanding the potential use cases of the protocol.


  • Efficient Data Retrieval - The Graph offers a robust indexing and query system that enables developers to efficiently retrieve specific data from blockchains. This allows dapps to access relevant information quickly, improving their overall performance and user experience.
  • Decentralization - The Graph operates as a decentralized protocol, ensuring data indexing and querying processes are not controlled by a single centralized entity. This decentralized approach enhances security, resilience and censorship resistance within the ecosystem.
  • Cost-Effective - By utilizing The Graph, developers can avoid the need for extensive infrastructure and maintenance costs associated with running their own indexing servers. The protocol provides a cost-effective solution by distributing the indexing and query tasks across a network of participants, eliminating the need for a centralized infrastructure.
  • Interoperability - The Graph supports multiple blockchains, allowing developers to access and index data from various networks. This interoperability enables developers to build cross-chain applications that can leverage data from different blockchains, fostering innovation and collaboration across the crypto ecosystem.
  • Community-Driven - The Graph has a vibrant and active community of developers and contributors who continuously work on improving the protocol. This community-driven approach fosters innovation, encourages collaboration and ensures the protocol remains adaptable to the evolving needs of developers and users.


  • Centralization of Indexers - While The Graph operates as a decentralized protocol, the indexing functionality relies on a set of indexers who provide data indexing and query services. The concentration of indexing power among a few major indexers could potentially lead to centralization concerns. However, efforts are being made to encourage decentralization and increase the number of active indexers.
  • Query Costs - Querying data through The Graph requires developers to pay a fee to indexers who provide requested data. Depending on the complexity and volume of the queries, these costs can accumulate, especially for resource-intensive applications. Developers need to carefully consider the cost implications of using The Graph for their specific use cases.
  • Scalability Challenges - As blockchain usage and data volumes continue to grow, scalability becomes a critical factor for protocols like The Graph. Ensuring that the protocol can handle increasing amounts of data and query requests without sacrificing performance or incurring high costs remains an ongoing challenge.
  • Reliance on Indexers - The Graph's functionality heavily relies on the participation of indexers who index and query the data. Any disruptions to the availability or reliability of these indexers could potentially impact the accessibility and reliability of the data accessed through The Graph.