Solana: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research July 10, 2023

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  • Solana is a high-performance blockchain platform designed for decentralized applications (Dapps) and crypto-native projects
  • It provides scalability, low transaction costs and fast transaction speeds without compromising decentralization or security
  • Solana has gained attention for its performance and scalability,
  • The platform has attracted numerous decentralized finance (DeFi) projects, games and many other use cases


Solana is a cryptocurrency and blockchain platform designed specifically to be fast, efficient, and highly scalable. It is a newer blockchain platform in the crypto industry. Solana launched in 2020, and has gained a lot of attention and support from investors, developers and businesses.

At its core, Solana is similar to other blockchain platforms, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. It allows for the creation and exchange of digital assets using a decentralized and secure network. However, what sets Solana apart is its unique approach to scalability and transaction processing.

A Brief History

Solana was founded by Anatoly Yakovenko in 2017 with the vision of creating a high-performance blockchain platform. As early as 2021, Solana gained significant attention with several high-profile projects, including decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols, gaming applications and non-fungible token (NFT) platforms using Solana as the underlying blockchain infrastructure.

In mid-2021, Solana conducted its initial exchange offering (IEO), listing the SOL token on major cryptocurrency exchanges. Unfortunately, in August 2021, Solana experienced a network outage due to increased network demand and issues with the network's clocking mechanism. The incident led to temporary disruptions but was resolved, highlighting the need for further optimizations and upgrades.

Despite the setback, Solana continued to grow, attracting more developers and projects to its ecosystem due to its high throughput, low transaction costs, and fast confirmation times.

What is Solana?

Solana is a high-performance blockchain platform designed to provide scalability, fast transaction speeds, and low costs for decentralized applications (dApps) and crypto-native projects. It aims to solve the scalability limitations of traditional blockchain networks by implementing a unique combination of technologies.

The Solana blockchain leverages a proof-of-stake consensus mechanism along with a decentralized clock called Proof of History (PoH). This enables parallel transaction processing to handle a high volume of transactions per second (TPS). This allows for affordable transaction fees.

It is also designed to be compatible with other blockchain networks, allowing for interoperability and the transfer of assets between different chains. This interoperability feature opens up opportunities for cross-chain collaboration and integration - allowing more systems to work with each other.

Getting Started

  • Learn about Solana. Explore its website, read the documentation and understand its key concepts, features, and technologies.
  • Set up a Wallet. Choose a Solana-compatible wallet to securely store, send and receive SOL (Solana's native cryptocurrency) and other Solana-based tokens. Some popular wallets for Solana include Sollet, Phantom and Ledger.
  • Obtain SOL. Acquire SOL tokens through cryptocurrency exchanges that support Solana. It's possible to purchase SOL using other cryptocurrencies like bitcoin (BTC) or ether (ETH) on exchanges such as Binance or Coinbase.
  • Connect to the Solana Network. With a wallet and SOL tokens,it's possible to connect to the Solana network. This will enable you to interact with decentralized applications (Dapps) and perform transactions on the Solana blockchain.
  • Explore Solana's Ecosystem . Explore the growing ecosystem of projects and dApps built on Solana.
  • Develop on Solana. Dapps can be built on Solana.There is the Solana Programming Language (SPL), Solana SDKs and the Solana Studio IDE. The Solana documentation provides resources, tutorials and code examples to help get started.
  • Join the Community. Engage with the Solana community by participating in forums, social media channels and developer communities. These platforms can provide support, guidance and opportunities for collaboration with other Solana enthusiasts and developers.

Unique Aspects

Solana offers several unique features and technologies that set it apart from other blockchain platforms.

  • Solana introduces a novel consensus algorithm called Proof of History (PoH). This acts as a decentralized clock that provides a verifiable timestamp for each transaction. It enables efficient transaction ordering and parallel processing, helping to achieve high scalability and fast confirmation times. PoH is a consensus algorithm and is important to blockchain networks. They enable decentralization in that no one central authority, like a bank, can control or charge high fees.
  • High throughput aims to process thousands of transactions per second (TPS). The architecture allows for concurrent transaction processing across multiple validators, maximizing the network's capacity to handle a large volume of transactions. This in turn optimizes the block processing and reduces network congestion, providing cost-effective transactions for users and developers. Solana can offer fast confirmation times, with block times as low as 400 milliseconds. This enables near-instantaneous transaction finality, providing a seamless user experience for decentralized applications.
  • Solana's architecture is designed with a web-scale approach, drawing inspiration from traditional technologies used by large-scale internet applications (like Facebook). It incorporates concepts such as horizontally scalable clusters, parallel processing, and sharding to achieve high performance and scalability.
  • Also, Solana is designed to be compatible with other blockchain networks, allowing for interoperability and the transfer of assets between different chains. This interoperability feature enables collaboration with other blockchains and leverages the strengths of different networks.


  • High Scalability. Solana's innovative architecture and consensus mechanism enables parallel transaction processing, allowing for seamless scalability. This scalability makes Solana well-suited for decentralized applications (Dapps) and projects that require high throughput.
  • Fast Transaction Confirmation. Solana offers fast transaction confirmation times, with block times as low as 400 milliseconds, improving the user experience and enabling real-time interactions in applications built on Solana.
  • Low Transaction Costs. Solana keeps transaction fees affordable and is particularly beneficial for applications and users that require frequent transactions or operate on a tight budget.
  • Developer-Friendly Ecosystem. There is a range of developer tools, libraries, and documentation that facilitate building on the Solana platform. Solana's ecosystem also offers opportunities for collaboration and integration with other projects and tools.


  • Centralization of Validators . Solana relies on a relatively small number of validators to achieve its high throughput. This concentration of power raises concerns about centralization and potential security risks if a significant number of validators were compromised or colluded.
  • Limited Decentralization. The high performance and throughput of Solana comes at the cost of sacrificing some decentralization. The network's architecture and consensus mechanism prioritize scalability and speed, which may result in a more limited number of participants in the consensus process compared to more decentralized blockchains.
  • Potential Network Congestion. As the popularity and usage of Solana increase, there is a risk of network congestion during periods of high demand. Network congestion can lead to increased fees and slower confirmation times, impacting accessibility of decentralized applications running on Solana.
  • Limited Adoption and Ecosystem. While Solana has been gaining attention and attracting projects, it still has a smaller ecosystem compared to more established blockchain platforms like Ethereum. The availability of Dapps, tools and developer resources could be limited on Solana, which might impact its adoption and user base.
  • Solana Outages. Some technical issues and outages have occurred since its launch in 2020. While these issues are frustrating for users and investors, they are not uncommon in the early stages of new technologies. This is especially true for a blockchain system as ambitious and innovative as Solana.