On-Chain: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research August 10, 2023

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  • Cryptocurrency on-chain transactions involve transferring cryptocurrency directly on a blockchain, verified and recorded by network nodes
  • This ensures blockchain trust and decentralization for participants
  • Advantages of on-chain transactions include transparency, security, immutability, decentralization, permissionless participation and programmability
  • Disadvantages include scalability challenges, energy consumption concerns, lack of privacy and governance challenges in decentralized networks


Cryptocurrency on-chain transactions involve transferring cryptocurrency directly on a blockchain, verified and recorded by network nodes. Cryptocurrency such as bitcoin operates on a peer-to-peer (P2P) network that enables secure and direct transactions without the need for intermediaries like banks. These digital currencies are built on a technology called "blockchain," which serves as a public ledger that records all transactions. On-chain transactions refer to transactions that occur directly on the blockchain, making them an integral part of the cryptocurrency ecosystem.

A Brief History

The concept of on-chain transactions can be traced back to the launch of Bitcoin in 2009. Bitcoin, created by an anonymous individual or group known as "Satoshi Nakamoto," introduced the concept of a decentralized digital currency. It was the first cryptocurrency to utilize blockchain technology, which allowed for the verification and recording of transactions in a transparent and immutable manner.

On-Chain: Everything to Know

On-chain transactions involve the transfer of cryptocurrency directly on the blockchain. When a user initiates a transaction, it is broadcasted to the network of nodes that maintain the blockchain. These nodes verify the transaction by confirming that the sender has sufficient funds and that the transaction adheres to the network's rules and protocols.

Once the transaction is verified, it is bundled with other transactions into a block. This block is then added to the blockchain, creating a permanent record of the transaction. The process of adding a block to the blockchain is known as "mining," and it involves solving complex mathematical puzzles to secure the network and prevent fraudulent activities.

One of the key advantages of on-chain transactions is transparency. Since the blockchain is a public ledger, anyone can view and verify the details of a transaction. This transparency fosters trust and accountability within the cryptocurrency ecosystem.

However, on-chain transactions also come with certain limitations. The speed of on-chain transactions can vary depending on the network's congestion and the specific cryptocurrency being used. Bitcoin, for example, has experienced scalability challenges, leading to longer confirmation times and higher transaction fees during peak periods.

To address these limitations, various scaling solutions have been proposed and implemented. For instance, layer 2 protocols like the Lightning Network have been developed to enable faster and cheaper off-chain transactions while still leveraging the security of the underlying blockchain.

Getting Started

To understand the concept of on-chain, it is essential to first grasp the basics of blockchain technology. A blockchain is a decentralized and distributed ledger that records all transactions across a network of computers. Each transaction is grouped into a block, which is then added to the chain in a sequential manner. This chain of blocks forms a complete history of all transactions that have ever occurred on the network.

In the context of cryptocurrency, on-chain refers to the data and activities that occur directly on the blockchain. This includes the recording of transactions, the validation of those transactions by network participants (also known as "miners" or "validators"), and the storage of other relevant information such as smart contracts or decentralized applications (dapps). All of this data is publicly accessible and can be viewed by anyone with an internet connection.

Unique Aspects

One of the unique aspects of on-chain transactions is transparency. Unlike traditional financial systems, where transactions are often obscured or hidden behind layers of intermediaries, on-chain transactions are visible to anyone. This transparency not only allows for greater accountability and trust but also enables users to independently verify the integrity of the network.

Another important aspect of on-chain transactions is immutability. Once a transaction is recorded on the blockchain, it becomes extremely difficult to alter or tamper with it. This is due to the cryptographic techniques employed by the blockchain, which make it computationally infeasible to modify past transactions without the consensus of the network. Immutability provides a high degree of security and ensures that the transaction history remains intact and tamper-proof.

Furthermore, on-chain activities extend beyond simple transactions. Smart contracts, for example, are self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement directly written into code on the blockchain. These contracts automatically execute predefined actions when certain conditions are met. The on-chain nature of smart contracts eliminates the need for intermediaries, reduces costs and enables the development of decentralized applications with a wide range of use cases.


  • Transparency - On-chain transactions are transparent, as they are recorded on a public blockchain. This transparency allows anyone to view and verify transactions, promoting trust and accountability within the cryptocurrency ecosystem.
  • Security - On-chain transactions benefit from the robust security protocols of blockchain technology. The decentralized nature of the blockchain makes it extremely difficult for malicious actors to manipulate or alter transactions, enhancing the overall security of the system.
  • Immutable Record - Once a transaction is recorded on the blockchain, it becomes virtually impossible to modify or erase. This immutability ensures that transactions cannot be tampered with, providing a reliable and permanent record of all on-chain activities.
  • Decentralization - On-chain transactions are executed and validated by a distributed network of nodes, eliminating the need for a central authority. This decentralized nature enhances the resilience and censorship resistance of cryptocurrencies, making them less vulnerable to single points of failure or control.
  • Permissionless - On-chain transactions are typically "permissionless," meaning that anyone can participate in the network without requiring prior approval. This openness encourages innovation and inclusivity, allowing individuals from diverse backgrounds to engage in cryptocurrency transactions.
  • Programmability - On-chain transactions can include smart contracts, which are self-executing contracts with predefined rules and conditions. These programmable features enable complex transactions and automated processes, opening up a wide range of applications in areas such as decentralized finance (DeFi) and dapps.


  • Scalability - The scalability of on-chain transactions remains a challenge. As the number of transactions on a blockchain increases, the network's capacity may become strained, leading to slower transaction times and higher fees. This scalability issue is particularly evident in popular blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Ethereum.
  • Energy Consumption - On-chain transactions, especially those that rely on proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanisms, can consume a significant amount of energy. This energy consumption has raised concerns about the environmental impact of cryptocurrencies and associated contribution to carbon emissions.
  • Privacy - While on-chain transactions provide transparency, they also lack privacy. All transaction details are visible on the public blockchain, including the sender and recipient addresses. Although the identities behind these addresses are pseudonymous, it is still possible to analyze transaction patterns and potentially link them to real-world individuals.
  • Governance Challenges - On-chain transactions can face governance challenges, particularly in decentralized networks. Decision-making processes related to protocol upgrades or network changes often require community consensus, which can be slow and contentious, leading to potential forks or disagreements within the community.