Multi-Party Computation: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research July 12, 2023

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  • The multi-party computing (MPC) method allows several parties to collaborate without disclosing each other's secrets
  • MPC is helpful when several people must collaborate on a computation but do not want to share their personal information
  • This has a wide range of applications, including private machine learning, secure voting, and financial transactions
  • MPC is an effective technique for protecting privacy, but it may also be computationally expensive and requires careful planning for maximum security


Multi-party computing (MPC) is a cryptographic method that enables several parties to work together to compute a function without disclosing each other's secret inputs. In collaborative computing applications like data exchange, analysis and processing, it ensures privacy, security and trust.

Multiple parties can collaboratively compute a function on their inputs using the MPC cryptographic approach without disclosing their individual inputs to one another.This enables secure computation of private information without disclosing actual information to any of the parties. The foundation of MPC is the idea of secret sharing, which entails separating a secret into numerous parts and giving each party a portion. The portions are then divided amongst the participants, and it can only be recreated by adding up their individual shares. Safe data sharing, safe voting processes and secure machine learning are just a few of the many applications for MPC. By dividing up data and computing across several parties, it offers a high level of security. This makes it harder for hackers to compromise the system.

A Brief History

In the 1980s, when the notion of multi-party computation was initially defined, Andrew Yao introduced the notion of secure two-party computation. Several researchers expanded the concept during the subsequent years while also developing a number of secure computation protocols and techniques.

However, it wasn't until the late 1990s and early 2000s that practical and efficient multi-party computation protocols, such as the SPDZ protocol and the BGW protocol, were developed. Since then, multi-party computation has drawn a lot of interest and is now widely utilized to safeguard user security and privacy in fields including machine learning, healthcare, and finance.

What Is Multi-Party Computation?

Multi-party computation (MPC), a research area in cryptography, aims to protect the anonymity of discussion participants from one another rather than avoiding external eavesdropping. The MPC concept enables participants in a relationship to calculate facts and arrive at a desired conclusion without disclosing any of the parties' private information. The difficulty of requiring zero-knowledge proofs has been shown by Shamir's Key Sharing Algorithm. Secure multi-party computing and secure computation are other names for MPC.

Multi-party computation (MPC) is a cryptographic technique that allows multiple parties to jointly compute a result or perform a computation without revealing their private inputs to each other.

Getting Started

  • Data analysis that protects privacy. MPC enables many parties to collectively evaluate private data without disclosing individual inputs. This is helpful in fields like healthcare, banking and others where maintaining data privacy is essential.
  • Secure auctions . Using MPC, bidders can submit their offers without disclosing their specific bids in a secure and confidential manner.
  • Cryptocurrency transactions . By allowing many participants to jointly sign transactions without disclosing their private keys, MPC can be used to improve the privacy and security of cryptocurrency transactions.
  • Machine learning . Without disclosing the data to outside parties, MPC can be used to train machine learning models on sensitive data.
  • Voting systems . Using MPC, voting systems can be made private and safe This allows voters to voice preferences without disclosing them to third parties.
  • Cloud computing . MPC can be used to enable secure and private computing in cloud computing environments by ensuring that data is encrypted during processing.
  • Decentralized identity management . MPC can be used to build systems that enable users to control their identity data without the assistance of a centralized authority.

Unique Aspects

The distinguishing feature of MPC is that it supports secrecy, security, and trust in circumstances involving collaborative computing, such as data processing, analysis, and sharing. Because it doesn't rely on a third party to carry out calculations or store data, MPC differs from other cryptographic approaches like encryption.

Instead, it's possible for several people to work together and evaluate their personal data without sharing their contributions. A variety of applications can benefit from MPC's distinctive capabilities, which include data analysis that protects privacy, secure auctions, cryptocurrency transactions, machine learning, voting systems, cloud computing and decentralized identity management.


  • Privacy . With multi-party computation, sensitive data can be securely computed without being made public to any of the parties involved.
  • Security . By dividing data and computing over numerous parties, multi-party computation offers a high level of security. This makes it harder for attackers to breach the system.
  • Trust . Since no single party has access to all the data, multi-party computation enables parties to cooperate and share information without needing to entirely trust one another.
  • Flexibility . Multi-party computation can be applied in a range of contexts, including safe data sharing and safe voting procedures.
  • Effectiveness . MPC minimizes the need for data transfers between parties, which can enhance performance and save costs.
  • Scalability . Multi-party computation is suited for use in complicated systems because it can be scaled to accommodate enormous volumes of data and a high number of participants.
  • Transparency . Multi-party computing can promote transparency by enabling all parties to confirm that the computation was carried out successfully without disclosing any private information.


  • Communication overhead . Multi-party computation necessitates inter-party communication, which can result in significant overhead and expensive costs.
  • Complexity . Implementing MPC can be challenging and calls for specialized skills and understanding.
  • Performance . When compared to conventional calculation techniques, multi-party computation might be slower and less effective.
  • Limited fault tolerance . Multi-party computation can be susceptible to errors or malicious activity from one or more parties.
  • High computational demands . Multi-party computation might call for a lot of computational power, making it harder to perform on systems or devices with limited resources.
  • Lack of standardization . MPC currently lacks a generally established standard, which might cause interoperability problems and make it difficult to deploy.