Mt. Gox: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research July 13, 2023

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  • Mt. Gox was a Tokyo-based cryptocurrency exchange that operated from 2010 to 2014
  • It shut down unexpectedly in 2014, after losing over 850,000 Bitcoins, worth over $450M at the time
  • At its peak, Mt. Gox handled over 70% of all Bitcoin transactions
  • Mt. Gox was the largest bitcoin exchange in the world before it shut down


Mt. Gox was a cryptocurrency exchange based in Tokyo, Japan, that operated between 2010 and 2014 and once handled 70% of all Bitcoin transactions. It quickly became one of the most popular cryptocurrency exchanges in the world. In February 2014, the exchange suddenly and unexpectedly shut down. It was revealed that the exchange had lost over 850,000 bitcoins, then worth over $450 million.

The news of the collapse sent shockwaves throughout the cryptocurrency community. The Mt. Gox shutdown is considered to be one of the most significant events in the history of cryptocurrency. The lessons from Mt. Gox continue to inform cryptocurrency exchange and crypto ecosystem creators today.

A Brief History

Mt. Gox was originally founded in 2006 as a platform for trading Magic: The Gathering cards. The name stands for "Magic: The Gathering Online eXchange." In 2010, Jed McCaleb, an American programmer, purchased the exchange. He turned it into a bitcoin exchange.

Under McCaleb's leadership, Mt. Gox quickly became the largest bitcoin exchange in the world. The exchange was hampered by technical issues and security problems. In 2011, Mt. Gox suffered a major hack that resulted in the theft of 2,000 bitcoins. Despite this, Mt. Gox continued to operate. Its user base expanded.

In 2013, Mark Karpeles, a French entrepreneur, purchased Mt. Gox from Jed McCaleb. Karpeles promised to improve the exchange's security and technical infrastructure. He did not make these changes quickly. In February 2014, Mt. Gox shut down.

What was Mt. Gox?

Mt. Gox was a cryptocurrency exchange that allowed users to buy and sell bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. The collapse of Mt. Gox was a defining moment in the history of cryptocurrency. It highlighted the need for better security measures and regulation in the crypto industry. The shutdown led to the creation of new exchanges designed to be more secure and transparent than Mt. Gox.

Getting Started

  • Learn from its instability. Mt. Gox exhibited a number of problems throughout its existence. The concerns reveal how today's exchanges could be operated more efficiently.
  • Learn from its security concerns. Mt. Gox had a number of security issues that led to hacks. The issues reveal how today's exchanges could be made more secure and less prone to losses.
  • Remember the history of the collapse and how this affected cryptocurrency ecosystems and investor confidence. Cracks in Mt. Gox began to appear in early 2014. In February 2014, Mt. Gox halted all bitcoin withdrawals, citing technical issues. The exchange claimed that it was working on a fix and withdrawals would resume soon. Weeks turned into months and customers remained unable to withdraw bitcoin from the exchange. In the meantime, rumors began to circulate that Mt. Gox was insolvent and had lost a large amount of Bitcoin due to a hack. In late February 2014, Mt. Gox had filed for bankruptcy protection in Japan. It stated it had lost over 850,000 bitcoin, then worth over $450 million. The loss was a devastating blow to the cryptocurrency industry, which was then still in its infancy. The collapse of Mt. Gox shook the confidence of investors. It also led to a sharp drop in the price of bitcoin.

Unique Aspects

  • The largest loss of Bitcoin in history. Over 850,000 bitcoins disappeared from the Mt Gox wallets.
  • Loss due to a combination of technical issues, security breaches, and mismanagement. The exchange had been hacked several times in the past. Its security measures were inadequate. The exchange also was frustrated by a bug in the bitcoin software, which allowed hackers to steal from the exchange's wallets.
  • Highlighted problems with the cryptocurrency industry. Between 2010 and 2014, there were few regulations governing cryptocurrency exchanges. Many exchanges operated with little oversight or accountability. Mt. Gox was able to operate for years although it had multiple problems. Regulators only took notice of the exchange's issues when the scale of the losses investors had suffered became apparent.
  • Led to a wave of lawsuits and investigations. Customers who had lost bitcoin on the exchange filed lawsuits in Japan and the United States. Government regulatory agencies around the world began to scrutinize cryptocurrency exchanges more closely. The collapse of Mt. Gox was a wake-up call for the cryptocurrency industry. The collapse led to a renewed focus on security and regulation.


  • Early Mover Advantage. Mt. Gox was one of the first cryptocurrency exchanges to launch. This gave it a head start in terms of user adoption and market share.
  • High Liquidity. The exchange had a high trading volume. Buyers and sellers could easily find counterparties for their trades. This resulted in fast and efficient transactions.
  • Fiat Currency Support. Mt. Gox supported fiat currency deposits and withdrawals. The support made it easier for investors to convert between cryptocurrencies and traditional currencies.
  • Advanced Trading Features. Mt. Gox offered advanced trading features such as margin trading and stop-loss orders. These allowed users to trade with leverage and limit their potential losses.


  • Poor Management. The collapse of Mt. Gox was primarily attributed to poor management. There were also reports of mismanagement, embezzlement and fraud.
  • Lack of Transparency. The exchange was criticized for its lack of transparency. Often the exchange did not inform users about the status of their funds or the operations of the exchange.
  • Technical Issues. Mt. Gox experienced several technical issues, including trading outages. These caused frustration and resulted in a loss of confidence among users.
  • Regulatory Issues. The exchange faced regulatory challenges, including a suspension of its USD withdrawals in 2013. This concern was related to issues with the exchange's U.S. banking partner.
  • Security Breaches. Mt. Gox suffered multiple security breaches, including significant hacks in 2011 and 2013. The 2011 hack resulted in the loss of 2,000 Bitcoins. The 2013 hack resulted in the theft of 850,000 bitcoins.