Monero: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research August 5, 2023

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  • Monero is a privacy-focused cryptocurrency that prioritizes secure and untraceable transactions, ensuring user anonymity
  • It utilizes ring signatures, stealth addresses and confidential transactions to enhance privacy and anonymity
  • Monero operates on a decentralized network, ensuring resistance to censorship and manipulation
  • Monero benefits from an active community of developers and supporters, conducting regular audits to ensure security.


Monero is a privacy-focused cryptocurrency that prioritizes secure and untraceable transactions, ensuring user anonymity. Monero, symbolized as XMR, is a privacy-focused cryptocurrency that aims to offer untraceable and confidential transactions. Unlike bitcoin and many other cryptocurrencies, monero places a strong emphasis on privacy by employing various cryptographic techniques. It operates on the principle of blockchain technology, which provides a decentralized and transparent ledger of transactions.

A Brief History

Monero's origins can be traced back to the CryptoNote protocol, an open-source technology that focuses on privacy and security. In October 2013, a Bitcointalk forum user named "thankful_for_today" proposed the idea of a new cryptocurrency that would address the privacy concerns of Bitcoin. This proposal laid the foundation for what would become Monero.

In April 2014, the Monero project was officially launched under the name "BitMonero." Over time, the project gained traction and underwent several significant developments. In 2016, the currency's name was changed to Monero, which means "coin" in the language Esperanto. This rebranding aimed to provide a distinct identity to the cryptocurrency and make it more accessible to a global audience.

Monero: Everything to Know

Monero's primary focus is on privacy and anonymity. It achieves this through the implementation of several innovative features. Firstly, Monero utilizes ring signatures, a cryptographic technique that obfuscates the transaction's origin by combining the spender's signature with the signatures of other participants. This makes it nearly impossible to trace the exact source of the funds.

Secondly, Monero employs stealth addresses, which generate unique one-time addresses for each transaction. This ensures that the recipient's address remains hidden, enhancing privacy for both the sender and receiver. Additionally, Monero uses confidential transactions, which obfuscate the transaction amounts while still allowing for verification by network participants.

Monero, like other cryptocurrencies, operates on a decentralized network. This means that transactions are verified and recorded by a distributed network of computers, known as nodes, rather than a central authority. Decentralization ensures that no single entity has control over the network, making it resistant to censorship and manipulation.

Monero utilizes a proof-of-work (PoW) consensus algorithm called CryptoNight. This algorithm is designed to be resistant to specialized mining hardware, such as ASICs, and aims to promote a fair and accessible mining ecosystem. Miners perform computational tasks to validate transactions and add them to the blockchain. In return, they receive newly minted Monero coins as a reward for their contribution to the network.

Monero incorporates a unique feature called dynamic block size. Unlike bitcoin and some other cryptocurrencies with fixed block sizes, Monero adjusts its block size based on the demand for transaction capacity. This allows the network to scale more efficiently, ensuring that transactions can be processed quickly even during periods of high demand.

Monero benefits from a passionate and active community of developers and supporters. The project is open-source, meaning that anyone can contribute to its development and improvement. The community regularly conducts audits and security reviews to identify and address any potential vulnerabilities in the system. This collaborative approach has helped Monero establish itself as a reliable and secure cryptocurrency.

Getting Started

To get started with Monero, a digital wallet is needed to store and manage XMR, the native cryptocurrency of the Monero network. Wallets can be downloaded from the official Monero website or obtained from trusted third-party providers. It's crucial to choose a wallet that suits specific needs and prioritizes security features such as strong encryption and two-factor authentication.

Monero can be acquired through various methods. One way is by purchasing it on cryptocurrency exchanges that support Monero trading. These exchanges allow XMR purchases using other cryptocurrencies or fiat currencies. It's essential to choose a reputable exchange with a good track record and sufficient liquidity to ensure smooth trading experiences.

Another method to acquire Monero is through mining. Monero utilizes a proof-of-work consensus algorithm called CryptoNight, which is designed to be resistant to application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) mining. This means individuals can mine Monero using a computer's central processing unit (CPU) or graphics processing unit (GPU). Mining Monero can be a rewarding endeavor, but it's important to consider factors such as electricity costs and the hardware's mining capabilities.

Unique Aspects

Monero stands out from other cryptocurrencies due to its strong emphasis on privacy and fungibility. While many cryptocurrencies record transaction details on public ledgers, Monero takes a different approach by utilizing ring signatures, stealth addresses and confidential transactions.

Ring signatures enable Monero users to obfuscate the true sender of a transaction. When a transaction is created, it is combined with several other transactions, making it challenging to determine the actual sender. This blending of transactions ensures that the link between the input and output addresses is obscured, enhancing privacy.

Stealth addresses are another privacy feature employed by Monero. When a user receives funds, a unique one-time address is generated on their behalf. This address is derived from the recipient's public key and the sender's random data. The actual recipient's address remains hidden, providing an additional layer of privacy.

Confidential transactions further enhance Monero's privacy features by obfuscating the transaction amount. With confidential transactions, the exact value being transferred is encrypted, preventing outside observers from determining the specific amounts involved in transactions. This feature adds an extra level of fungibility to Monero, as all units of the cryptocurrency are indistinguishable from one another.

In addition to its privacy features, Monero also employs a dynamic block size algorithm. Unlike Bitcoin, where the block size is fixed, Monero adjusts its block size based on demand. This allows for greater scalability and ensures that the network can handle increased transaction volumes without experiencing congestion or high fees.


  • Privacy - Monero is designed to provide strong privacy protections. Unlike Bitcoin, where transactions are transparent and can be traced on the blockchain, Monero utilizes advanced cryptographic techniques such as ring signatures, stealth addresses, and confidential transactions to obfuscate sender, recipient and transaction amounts. This ensures that Monero transactions are unlinkable and untraceable, offering users a high level of privacy.
  • Fungibility - Fungibility refers to the interchangeability of individual units of a currency. Monero, with its privacy features, ensures that each unit of Monero is indistinguishable from another. This means that all Monero coins have equal value and cannot be tainted or blacklisted due to their transaction history. Fungibility is an essential characteristic for a currency to function effectively, and Monero excels in this aspect.
  • Decentralization - Monero, like many other cryptocurrencies, operates on a decentralized blockchain network. This means that no central authority controls or governs Monero. Decentralization enhances security, as there is no single point of failure that can be targeted by malicious actors. It also provides censorship resistance, as transactions cannot be blocked or reversed by any centralized entity.
  • Community and development - Monero has a vibrant and dedicated community of developers and enthusiasts. The community actively contributes to the development and improvement of the Monero protocol, ensuring its continuous evolution and innovation. The open-source nature of Monero encourages transparency and peer review, making it more resilient to security vulnerabilities and ensuring a robust ecosystem.
  • Mining algorithm - Monero uses a mining algorithm called RandomX, which is designed to be resistant to specialized mining hardware like ASICs (Application-Specific Integrated Circuits). This algorithm aims to promote a fair and egalitarian distribution of mining rewards, allowing individuals to mine monero using standard computer hardware. This approach helps maintain a decentralized network by preventing mining centralization.


  • Scalability - Monero's focus on privacy and anonymity comes with a trade-off in terms of scalability. The cryptographic techniques employed by Monero to ensure privacy result in larger transaction sizes compared to other cryptocurrencies. This can lead to slower transaction confirmation times and higher network fees during periods of high demand. However, ongoing research and development efforts aim to address these scalability challenges and improve the overall efficiency of the Monero network.
  • Regulatory scrutiny - The privacy features offered by Monero have attracted regulatory attention in some jurisdictions. Governments and regulatory bodies may view the enhanced privacy provided by Monero as a potential tool for illicit activities, such as money laundering or terrorism financing. This could result in stricter regulations or limitations on the use and exchange of monero in certain jurisdictions, potentially impacting its adoption and liquidity.
  • User experience - While Monero provides robust privacy features, the enhanced privacy comes at the cost of a more complex user experience compared to more mainstream cryptocurrencies like bitcoin. Setting up and using monero wallets may require additional technical knowledge, and the privacy features can make transactions less straightforward for new users. However, user-friendly wallets and tools are being developed to improve the overall user experience of Monero.
  • Perception and acceptance - Monero's focus on privacy has led to some concerns and misconceptions among the general public. The association of privacy-focused cryptocurrencies with illicit activities has created a perception that Monero is primarily used for illegal purposes. While Monero's privacy features can be beneficial for individuals seeking financial privacy, it is essential to educate and promote its legitimate use cases to overcome these misconceptions and gain wider acceptance.