Merge Ethereum: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research October 5, 2023

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  • The Merge of Ethereum combines the security and scalability of an Ethereum upgrade, enhancing the overall network
  • This is a major upgrade to the Ethereum (ETH) network that aims to address scalability and energy consumption challenges.
  • It transitioned Ethereum from a proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanism to proof-of-stake (PoS), reducing energy consumption and increasing transaction capacity
  • This integrates the Ethereum mainnet with the PoS Beacon Chain, combining the security of PoW with the scalability and energy efficiency of PoS.


The Merge of Ethereum combines the security and scalability of an Ethereum upgrade, enhancing the overall network

Previously, the Ethereum network relied on a PoW consensus mechanism, similar to Bitcoin. This mechanism required miners to solve complex mathematical problems to validate transactions and secure the network. While PoW is robust and secure, it is energy-intensive and limits scalability. Ethereum's Merge aims to address these challenges by transitioning to a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus mechanism.

A Brief History

To understand the significance of the Ethereum Merge, it is important to trace its history. Ethereum was proposed by Vitalik Buterin in late 2013 and launched on July 30, 2015. The network quickly gained traction, attracting developers and users who recognized its potential to revolutionize industries through decentralized applications (dapps) and smart contracts.

However, Ethereum's success also brought challenges. As the network became more popular, it experienced congestion and high transaction fees. This led to the exploration of a multi-phase upgrade aimed at enhancing scalability, security and sustainability.

Ethereum's upgrade introduced shard chains, which divide the network's workload among multiple chains to process transactions in parallel. It also introduced the PoS consensus mechanism, where validators create new blocks based on the number of tokens they hold and are willing to stake as collateral. This shift to PoS significantly reduces energy consumption and increases transaction capacity.

Merge Ethereum: Everything to Know

The Ethereum Merge is the final phase of the "Ethereum 2.0" upgrade, transitioning from PoW to PoS. It combines the robustness and security of PoW with the scalability and energy efficiency of PoS. This upgrade is highly anticipated as it has the potential to address Ethereum's scalability issues while reducing its environmental impact.

The merge involves integrating the current Ethereum mainnet with the PoS Beacon Chain. By doing so, Ethereum will benefit from the scalability and reduced energy consumption while maintaining the security and decentralization provided by PoW.

One key benefit of the Ethereum Merge is the elimination of mining. Miners, responsible for validating transactions and securing the network, will be replaced by validators. Validators stake their ether (ETH) tokens as collateral and participate in block creation and validation, earning rewards. This transition to staking greatly reduces Ethereum's energy consumption, making it more sustainable.

The Merge will also improve transaction throughput and reduce fees. With shard chains, the network can process multiple transactions simultaneously, increasing capacity. This scalability enhancement alleviates congestion and lowers fees, making Ethereum more accessible to users and developers.

Getting Started

To start with Ethereum, users need a digital wallet to store ETH, the native cryptocurrency of the network. Web-based wallets, software wallets, and hardware wallets are available options. Acquiring ETH can also be done through cryptocurrency exchanges.

Gas, denoted in units called "Gwei," is a notable feature of Ethereum. It acts as the fuel for executing transactions and smart contracts. The amount of gas required depends on the transaction's complexity. When sending ether or interacting with smart contracts, you must specify the gas limit (maximum gas consumption) and gas price (payment per unit of gas). Higher gas prices incentivize miners to prioritize your transaction, resulting in faster confirmation times.

Unique Aspects

Ethereum's standout feature is its support for smart contracts. These self-executing agreements automatically execute predefined conditions in Solidity, a programming language designed for Ethereum. Smart contracts enable various applications, including decentralized finance (DeFi), decentralized exchanges, non-fungible tokens (NFTs) and more.

DeFi is a significant use case for Ethereum, offering open, permissionless and transparent alternatives to traditional financial systems. With smart contracts, developers have created decentralized lending platforms, decentralized exchanges, stablecoins, yield farming protocols and other innovative financial instruments.

Ethereum's ecosystem thrives on its vibrant developer community. The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) allows developers to write and deploy smart contracts, fostering innovation. The open-source nature of Ethereum has led to the development of various frameworks, tools, and libraries that simplify building decentralized applications. Ethereum's compatibility with the ERC-20 token standard has facilitated the creation of thousands of tokens, enabling crowdfunding campaigns and asset tokenization.


  • Enhanced Scalability . With the integration of the PoS mechanism, Ethereum's Merge significantly increases the network's transaction processing speed and capacity, addressing the current scalability challenges.
  • Reduced Energy Consumption . Transitioning from PoW to PoS reduces the energy consumption of the Ethereum network, making it more environmentally sustainable and cost-effective.
  • Increased Security . The PoS mechanism introduces validators who stake ether as collateral, offering a more secure and decentralized block validation process than the traditional miner-based system.
  • Economic Incentives . Validators in the PoS system are incentivized to act in the network's best interest, as they have a financial stake. This structure potentially minimizes malicious actions and increases network trustworthiness.
  • Ecosystem Continuity . The Ethereum Merge ensures that existing dapps, smart contracts, and tokens continue to function seamlessly, preserving the robustness of the ecosystem.


  • Staking Risks . Validators are required to stake a significant amount of Ethereum to participate. If they act maliciously or fail to validate correctly, they risk losing their staked Ethereum.
  • Network Consensus . While PoS is seen as more decentralized, achieving consensus can still be challenging, especially during the early phases of the transition.
  • Temporary Network Instabilities . As with any major upgrade, there might be unforeseen issues or vulnerabilities that arise during the transition, potentially causing temporary network instabilities.
  • Regulatory Uncertainties . The shift to PoS and the structural changes it brings could lead to new regulatory challenges or interpretations, affecting the adoption and utilization of the Ethereum Merge.