Internet Computer: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research August 15, 2023

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  • The Internet Computer is a cryptocurrency project that aims to create a decentralized and scalable internet platform for hosting applications and services
  • Internet Computer uses the Motoko programming language to run smart contracts and dapps on the blockchain with the same performance as traditional web applications
  • Internet Computer scales horizontally by adding more nodes to the network and offers enhanced security, censorship resistance and interoperability with existing systems
  • Internet Computer may face adoption challenges, security risks, energy consumption concerns, a learning curve for developers and regulatory uncertainty


The Internet Computer is a cryptocurrency project that aims to create a decentralized and scalable internet platform for hosting applications and services. Internet Computer is a blockchain-based protocol developed by the DFINITY Foundation. It aims to extend the functionality of the internet by providing a decentralized platform for hosting smart contracts and decentralized applications (dapps).

Unlike traditional blockchains that focus on specific use cases, Internet Computer seeks to replace portions of the traditional internet stack, including cloud services and web hosting. By doing so, it aims to create a more open, secure and efficient internet infrastructure.

A Brief History

The development of Internet Computer began in 2016, when the DFINITY Foundation was founded by Dominic Williams. The project attracted significant attention and support from investors, raising over $121 million in funding. After several years of research and development, the Internet Computer mainnet was launched in May 2021.

Internet Computer: Everything to Know

At the core, Internet Computer combines blockchain technology with a decentralized network of computers to create a new paradigm for hosting and executing software. The network consists of a series of independent data centers, referred to as "nodes," that collectively form the Internet Computer blockchain. These nodes work together to process transactions, execute smart contracts and store data in a decentralized manner.

One of the key innovations of Internet Computer is the ability to run smart contracts and dapps with the same performance and user experience as traditional web applications. This is achieved through the use of a new programming language called "Motoko," which is specifically designed for building applications on the Internet Computer blockchain. Motoko enables developers to write code that can be executed directly on the blockchain, eliminating the need for additional layers of abstraction.

Another important feature of Internet Computer is the ability to scale horizontally. Traditional blockchains often face scalability limitations, leading to congestion and high transaction fees. In contrast, Internet Computer scales by adding more nodes to the network, allowing it to handle a larger number of transactions and support a growing user base. This scalability is achieved through a unique consensus algorithm called "Threshold Relay," which enables the network to achieve consensus efficiently and securely.

In addition to scalability, Internet Computer offers enhanced security and censorship resistance. By utilizing blockchain technology, the platform ensures that data and transactions are stored immutably and transparently. This makes it extremely difficult for malicious actors to tamper with the system or censor specific applications. Moreover, Internet Computer's architecture is designed to withstand various types of attacks, providing a robust and secure environment for developers and users.

Getting Started

To get started with the Internet Computer, developers can write applications using familiar programming languages such as Motoko or Solidity. Motoko is a new programming language specifically designed for building smart contracts and dapps on the Internet Computer. Solidity, on the other hand, is a widely-used programming language for developing smart contracts on Ethereum and is also supported on the Internet Computer through the use of a compatibility layer.

Developers can deploy applications on the Internet Computer by converting code into WebAssembly (Wasm), a low-level programming language that can be executed efficiently by the Internet Computer's virtual machine. Once deployed, the application becomes part of the Internet Computer's decentralized network and can be accessed by users from anywhere in the world.

Unique Aspects

One of the unique aspects of the Internet Computer is the ability to scale horizontally. Traditional blockchain platforms face scalability issues when the number of users and transactions increases. The Internet Computer addresses this problem by allowing multiple nodes to work together to process and validate transactions in parallel. This distributed approach enables the network to handle a large number of transactions and users simultaneously, without sacrificing speed or security.

Another notable aspect of the Internet Computer is its "canister" architecture. Canisters are the building blocks of applications on the Internet Computer. They are self-contained units that encapsulate the code, data and state of an application. Canisters can communicate with each other and interact with the outside world through a secure messaging protocol. This modular architecture makes it easier to develop, deploy and upgrade applications on the Internet Computer, as developers can focus on building and testing individual canisters without worrying about the entire application.

The Internet Computer also introduces a novel economic model called "Internet Computer Tokens" (ICP). ICP tokens are used for governance, security and utility purposes within the network. They are used to reward node operators for computational resources, participate in network governance decisions and pay for services and resources on the Internet Computer. The introduction of ICP tokens aligns the incentives of participants in the network and helps ensure the security and stability of the Internet Computer ecosystem.


  • Decentralization - The Internet Computer platform operates on a decentralized network of nodes, eliminating the need for centralized intermediaries. This enhances security, reduces the risk of censorship and promotes a more open and inclusive internet.
  • Scalability - Internet Computer aims to address the scalability limitations of traditional blockchain networks by utilizing advanced protocols and algorithms. This allows the platform to scale horizontally, accommodating a large number of users and applications without sacrificing performance.
  • Smart Contract Capabilities - Internet Computer supports the execution of smart contracts, which are self-executing agreements with predefined rules and conditions. Smart contracts enable the automation of processes, reducing the need for intermediaries and enhancing efficiency.
  • Interoperability - Internet Computer is designed to be interoperable with existing systems and networks. This means that developers can easily integrate applications with other blockchain platforms, traditional systems or external data sources, fostering a more connected and seamless digital ecosystem.
  • Governance and Consensus - Internet Computer employs a robust governance and consensus mechanism to ensure the platform's security and stability. The network is governed by the participants who hold voting power, enabling collective decision-making and reducing the influence of centralized entities.


  • Adoption Challenges - As with any emerging technology, widespread adoption of Internet Computer may face challenges. Overcoming user resistance, regulatory hurdles and integrating with existing infrastructure could slow down the platform's growth.
  • Security Risks - While Internet Computer aims to provide a secure environment, no system is entirely immune to security risks. Malicious actors may attempt to exploit vulnerabilities in the platform, potentially leading to financial losses or privacy breaches.
  • Energy Consumption - Like many blockchain networks, Internet Computer relies on a consensus mechanism that requires significant computational power. This can result in high energy consumption, which raises concerns regarding the environmental impact of cryptocurrency mining.
  • Learning Curve - Developing applications on Internet Computer may require developers to learn new programming languages and frameworks specific to the platform. This learning curve could pose a barrier to entry for developers accustomed to existing technologies.
  • Regulatory Uncertainty - The regulatory landscape surrounding cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology is still evolving. Internet Computer may face regulatory challenges and uncertainties, which could impact operations and adoption.