How Do Bitcoins Work?: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research September 29, 2023

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  • Bitcoin is a decentralized digital currency using blockchain technology to enable secure and transparent transactions without the need for intermediaries
  • It operates on a blockchain, a public ledger that records and verifies transactions
  • When a Bitcoin transaction occurs, it is grouped with other pending transactions in a block, and miners compete to solve a mathematical puzzle to validate the transactions
  • Bitcoin has unique aspects such as limited supply, pseudonymity, security, decentralization and irreversibility


Bitcoin is a decentralized digital currency using blockchain technology to enable secure and transparent transactions without the need for intermediaries. Bitcoin's decentralized nature and cryptographic principles give rise to several aspects that differentiate it from traditional currencies and financial systems.

A Brief History

Bitcoin was introduced in a 2008 whitepaper by Satoshi Nakamoto titled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System." In January 2009, the Bitcoin network went live, marking the birth of the first cryptocurrency. Initially embraced by tech and cryptography enthusiasts, Bitcoin gained popularity and acceptance as a legitimate form of digital currency.

How Do Bitcoins Work?: Everything to Know

To understand how bitcoins work, it's important to grasp the concept of the blockchain. The blockchain is a distributed ledger that maintains a record of all Bitcoin transactions across a network of computers called nodes. Each node stores a copy of the blockchain, ensuring transparency and security.

When a bitcoin transaction occurs, it is broadcasted to the network and grouped with other pending transactions in a block. Miners, participants in the network, compete to solve a complex mathematical puzzle to validate the transactions in the block. This process, known as mining, involves expending computational power to find a specific hash value that meets certain criteria.

Once a miner successfully solves the puzzle, they add the block of transactions to the blockchain. Miners are rewarded with newly minted bitcoins and transaction fees. This incentivizes miners to contribute computational power to secure the network.

To ensure scarcity, the total supply of bitcoins is limited to 21 million coins. The issuance of new bitcoins is halved approximately every four years through a process called "halving," reducing the rate at which new coins enter circulation.

Bitcoin transactions are pseudonymous, with transaction details recorded on the blockchain. Bitcoin addresses, alphanumeric strings, represent senders and recipients. While this provides privacy, it raises concerns about illicit activities.

Users typically manage bitcoins using digital wallets, which store private keys for transaction signing and proof of ownership. Wallets can be software-based or hardware-based. Securing and backing up wallet information is crucial to prevent fund loss.

Getting Started

To understand Bitcoin, it's important to grasp the basics of its underlying technology, blockchain. A blockchain is a distributed ledger that records all transactions made on the network. Unlike traditional financial systems where a central authority maintains the ledger, a blockchain relies on a decentralized network of computers called nodes to validate and store transaction data.

When a user initiates a bitcoin transaction, it is broadcasted to the network for verification. Miners, responsible for validating transactions, compete to solve complex mathematical puzzles. The first miner to solve the puzzle adds the verified transactions to a new block and broadcasts it to the network. Other miners verify the block's integrity and add it to their copy of the blockchain. This process ensures transparency, security,and immutability of the transaction history.

Unique Aspects

Limited Supply: Bitcoin has a finite supply of 21 million coins, unlike fiat currencies that can be printed at will. This scarcity contributes to its value proposition and draws comparisons to precious metals like gold.

Pseudonymity: Bitcoin transactions are recorded on the blockchain, but the identities of the parties involved are not directly disclosed. Users are identified by cryptographic addresses, randomly generated strings of characters. This pseudonymous nature provides privacy but raises concerns about illicit activities.

Security: Bitcoin employs robust cryptographic techniques to secure transactions. Each transaction is digitally signed using the sender's private key, which can be mathematically verified using the corresponding public key. The decentralized nature of the blockchain makes it highly resistant to tampering and fraud.

Decentralization: Bitcoin operates without a central authority. No single entity can manipulate the currency or make policy decisions. The network relies on a consensus mechanism, such as proof-of-work, to validate transactions and maintain the integrity of the blockchain.

Irreversibility: Once a Bitcoin transaction is confirmed and added to the blockchain, it is nearly impossible to reverse. This feature protects against chargebacks and fraud, making Bitcoin transactions more secure. However, users must exercise caution and ensure they send funds to the intended recipient.


  • Cryptography: Bitcoin transactions are secured through advanced cryptographic techniques.
  • Decentralization: Bitcoin's decentralized blockchain network ensures data is distributed across multiple nodes, making it highly resistant to hacking or fraud.
  • Privacy: Bitcoin transactions are recorded on the blockchain but are pseudonymous, allowing users to transact without revealing real-world identities.This offers a certain level of privacy compared to traditional financial systems.
  • Accessibility: Anyone with an internet connection can use Bitcoin, regardless of geographical location or socioeconomic status. This inclusivity empowers individuals who lack access to traditional banking services to participate in the global economy.
  • Speed and Efficiency: Bitcoin transactions can be processed quickly, especially compared to traditional banking systems. This makes Bitcoin attractive for global remittances and cross-border transactions that often involve intermediaries and lengthy settlement periods.
  • Lower Transaction Fees: Transactions with Bitcoin can involve lower fees compared to traditional financial systems. This is particularly beneficial for microtransactions or international transfers with disproportionately high fees.
  • Decentralization: Bitcoin operates on a decentralized blockchain network, removing the need for intermediaries and reducing costs and potential points of failure. This fosters transparency, resilience and eliminates control by any single entity or government.
  • Financial Inclusion: Bitcoin has the potential to bring financial services to the unbanked and underbanked populations worldwide. With a smartphone and internet access, individuals can store, send and receive bitcoin, bypassing traditional banking infrastructure.
  • Limited Supply: Bitcoin has a finite supply cap of 21 million coins, creating scarcity and potentially protecting against inflation. This feature has led some to view Bitcoin as a store of value similar to gold.


  • Volatility: Bitcoin's price is known for its significant fluctuations within short periods, posing challenges for using it as a medium of exchange or store of value.
  • Regulatory Uncertainty: Regulations surrounding cryptocurrencies, including bitcoin, remain complex and vary across jurisdictions. Uncertainty can create challenges for businesses and individuals seeking to use cryptocurrencies legally and confidently.
  • Irreversibility: Once a bitcoin transaction is confirmed and added to the blockchain, it is nearly impossible to reverse. While this adds security, it can be challenging to recover funds in case of mistakes or fraudulent activity.
  • Energy Consumption: Bitcoin mining, the process of creating new coins and verifying transactions, requires significant computational power and energy consumption. Critics argue that the energy-intensive nature of Bitcoin mining has negative environmental impacts.
  • Scalability: Bitcoin's popularity has raised concerns about scalability. The original Bitcoin blockchain has limited transaction processing capacity, potentially causing congestion and slower transaction times during high demand. Solutions like the Lightning Network aim to address scalability concerns.
  • Learning Curve: Understanding and navigating the world of cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, can be challenging for newcomers. Concepts like wallets, private keys, and blockchain technology may require a learning curve for individuals unfamiliar with the underlying technology.