Frax: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research August 24, 2023

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  • Frax is a stablecoin that combines elements of algorithmic and collateral-backed stablecoins, aiming to maintain a stable value of $1
  • The Frax project launched in December 2020, aiming to maintain stability and reduce price fluctuations
  • It utilizes a dual-collateral system, algorithmic mechanisms and a redemption mechanism to achieve stability and transparency
  • Frax operates under a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) for community-driven decision-making, and it can be traded on various exchanges


Frax is a stablecoin that combines elements of algorithmic and collateral-backed stablecoins, aiming to maintain a stable value of $1. Frax is a decentralized stablecoin that was launched in 2020. Unlike traditional stablecoins that are solely backed by fiat currency reserves, Frax utilizes a dual-collateral system comprising both fiat currency and cryptocurrencies.

This approach aims to provide stability and mitigate the risks associated with relying solely on fiat reserves. Frax operates on the Ethereum blockchain and is governed by a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO), allowing token holders to participate in the decision-making process.

A Brief History

The Frax project was initiated by a team of developers led by Sam Kazemian, who recognized the need for a stablecoin that could effectively maintain a peg to the US dollar. Frax was officially launched in December 2020 and has since gained traction within the cryptocurrency community. The project has undergone several iterations and improvements, with the team actively addressing feedback and implementing innovative features to enhance the stability and functionality of the Frax stablecoin.

Frax: Everything to Know

  • Dual-Collateral System - Frax stands out from other stablecoins due to a dual-collateral system. The collateral backing Frax consists of both fiat currency reserves and cryptocurrencies, such as ether. This combination aims to provide stability and reduce the risk of price fluctuations.
  • Algorithmic Mechanisms - Frax utilizes algorithmic mechanisms to maintain stability. The protocol adjusts the supply of Frax tokens based on the demand in the market. If the price of Frax deviates from the peg, the protocol initiates supply adjustments to bring it back in line with the target price. This algorithmic approach allows Frax to maintain stability without relying solely on external reserves.
  • Redemption Mechanism - Frax offers a redemption mechanism, allowing users to exchange Frax tokens for the underlying collateral assets. This mechanism provides transparency and ensures that the stablecoin is fully backed by the collateralized assets.
  • Governance and Decentralization - Frax operates under a DAO, enabling token holders to participate in the decision-making process. This democratic governance structure allows for community-driven decision-making and ensures the long-term sustainability of the project.
  • Frax Pairs and Integration - Frax can be traded on various decentralized exchange platforms (DEX) and centralized exchanges (CEX). The stablecoin has gained significant liquidity and is often paired with major cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin and ether. Integration with popular DeFi protocols and platforms further expands the use cases and utility of Frax.

Getting Started

To get started with Frax, a user must first obtain a compatible digital wallet that supports the ERC-20 standard, as Frax is built on the Ethereum blockchain. Once a wallet is set up, the user can obtain Frax by purchasing it from a cryptocurrency exchange or by participating in the Frax protocol itself. It is important to note that Frax operates on a fractional-algorithmic system, which means that the value is not directly pegged to a specific fiat currency.

Unique Aspects

One of the unique aspects of Frax is the ability to maintain stability through a combination of collateralization and algorithmic mechanisms. Unlike traditional stablecoins that rely solely on a reserve of fiat currency, Frax incorporates a dynamic collateralization ratio. This ratio adjusts based on market conditions to ensure the stability of the token. In times of high demand, the collateralization ratio increases, providing a higher level of stability. Conversely, during periods of low demand, the ratio decreases, allowing for greater flexibility.

Frax also introduces the concept of "Frax Shares" (FXS) and "Frax Bonds" (FXB) to further enhance stability. Frax Shares act as a governance token, giving holders the ability to vote on protocol upgrades and changes. Frax Bonds, on the other hand, are debt instruments that can be purchased and redeemed to help maintain the stability of the Frax ecosystem.

Another noteworthy aspect of Frax is the decentralized nature. Unlike centralized stablecoins that rely on a trusted third party to maintain stability, Frax operates on a decentralized protocol. This ensures that the stability and value of Frax are not controlled by a single entity, but rather by the collective decisions and actions of participants.


  • Stability - Frax offers stability by utilizing a combination of algorithmic and collateral-backed mechanisms. This approach helps to mitigate the volatility commonly associated with cryptocurrencies, making Frax a reliable medium of exchange and store of value.
  • Decentralization - Frax operates on a decentralized blockchain network, ensuring that no single entity has control over issuance or governance. This decentralized nature enhances transparency, security and censorship resistance.
  • Scalability - Frax is designed to be scalable, allowing for increased transaction throughput as demand grows. This scalability is crucial for accommodating a larger user base and facilitating widespread adoption.
  • Accessibility - Frax provides accessibility to individuals who may not have access to traditional banking services. Users can easily transact and store value without relying on intermediaries or geographical constraints.
  • Global Reach - Frax is accessible to anyone with an internet connection, enabling cross-border transactions without the need for traditional financial intermediaries. This global reach fosters financial inclusion and empowers individuals in underserved regions.


  • Collateral Risk - The stability of Frax relies on collateralized assets. While the collateralization mechanism helps maintain the stablecoin's value, it also introduces a level of risk. If the collateral assets experience significant price fluctuations or fail to maintain value, it may impact the stability of Frax.
  • Regulatory Uncertainty - Cryptocurrencies, including stablecoins like Frax, operate in a rapidly evolving regulatory landscape. Uncertainty regarding regulatory frameworks and potential restrictions can create challenges for Frax's adoption and growth.
  • Dependence on Ethereum - Frax operates on the Ethereum blockchain, which means that it is subject to the limitations and scalability issues of the Ethereum network. Network congestion and high transaction fees during peak periods can impact the user experience and hinder Frax's scalability.
  • Volatility during Market Stress - While Frax aims to provide stability, extreme market conditions or external shocks can still impact the value. In times of significant market stress, the stability mechanisms may face challenges, potentially leading to temporary deviations from the intended peg.
  • Governance Challenges - Decentralized governance can pose challenges in terms of decision-making and consensus-building. Frax's governance model relies on token holders, and achieving consensus on critical decisions may require extensive coordination and participation.