Exit Scams: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research September 13, 2023

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  • In cryptocurrency, "exit scams" are fraudulent schemes wherein project creators disappear with investor funds, causing significant financial losses
  • Exit scams involve deceiving investors by raising funds for a legitimate-sounding project and then disappearing with the money
  • It often involves creating flashy websites or white papers, gaining credibility through endorsements or partnerships and pressuring investors to act quickly
  • The pseudonymous nature of transactions and absence of a central authority in cryptocurrency make it difficult to trace and recover stolen funds related to scams


In cryptocurrency, "exit scams" are fraudulent schemes wherein project creators disappear with investor funds, causing significant financial losses. These scams often occur in the cryptocurrency and blockchain space, where projects promise high returns or innovative products but have no intention of delivering on these promises.

Instead, they collect funds from unsuspecting individuals and vanish, leaving investors with significant financial losses and little to no recourse for recovering funds. Exit scams are a prevalent concern in the unregulated and anonymous nature of the cryptocurrency world, highlighting the importance of due diligence and caution when investing or participating in new projects.

A Brief History

Exit scams have affected the cryptocurrency space since the early days. One infamous example is Mt. Gox, a Japan-based Bitcoin exchange that collapsed in 2014. Mt. Gox was the largest Bitcoin exchange globally, but it was later revealed that the exchange had significant security vulnerabilities and suffered a massive theft of bitcoin funds. This resulted in the loss of approximately 850,000 bitcoins, causing significant financial harm to numerous investors.

Another notable exit scam occurred in 2017 with the collapse of BitConnect, a cryptocurrency lending and exchange platform. BitConnect promised investors high returns through the lending program, but it turned out to be a Ponzi scheme. The project abruptly shut down, leading to the loss of millions of dollars invested by unsuspecting individuals.

Exit Scams: Everything to Know

Exit scams can take various forms but often share common characteristics. Generally, scammers create flashy websites or white papers to attract investors, presenting an enticing vision for the project and highlighting associated technology or the potential impact on an industry.

To gain credibility, scammers may enlist the support of influential individuals within the cryptocurrency community, secure endorsements from well-known figures, create partnerships with reputable organizations or hold high-profile events. These tactics aim to instill confidence and make the scam appear legitimate.

Once investors are lured in, scammers initiate an "initial coin offering" (ICO) or token sale, allowing investors to purchase the project's tokens using established cryptocurrencies like bitcoin or ether. Scammers may create a sense of urgency, pressuring investors to act quickly and discouraging thorough due diligence.

After raising substantial funds, scammers execute the exit phase. This involves abruptly shutting down the project or gradually ceasing communication with investors. In some cases, scammers may fabricate excuses or delays to extract more funds before disappearing.

Getting Started

To understand exit scams, it is important to grasp the basic concept of cryptocurrencies. These are digital assets that use cryptographic techniques to secure transactions and control the creation of new units. These digital currencies operate on decentralized networks called blockchains, which ensure transparency, immutability and resistance to censorship.

One key feature of cryptocurrencies is the absence of intermediaries like banks or financial institutions. This decentralized nature gives individuals full control over funds and eliminates the need for trust in a central authority. However, it also means that there is no regulatory oversight or protection for investors, making the cryptocurrency space an attractive target for scammers.

Unique Aspects

Exit scams in the cryptocurrency world have distinct characteristics that differentiate them from traditional financial scams. One of these aspects is the pseudonymous nature of cryptocurrency transactions. Unlike traditional financial systems that require individuals to disclose identities during transactions, cryptocurrencies offer a certain level of privacy. This anonymity makes it easier for scammers to hide true identities and carry out fraudulent activities without being easily traced.

Another unique aspect of cryptocurrency exit scams is the absence of a central authority that can intervene or reverse transactions. Once funds are sent to a scammer's wallet address, they are nearly impossible to recover. This lack of recourse for victims makes exit scams appealing to fraudsters, as they can disappear with the stolen funds and leave investors with little to no legal recourse.

Furthermore, the global and borderless nature of cryptocurrencies adds complexity to exit scams. Cryptocurrencies enable transactions to take place across international boundaries without relying on traditional banking systems. This makes it challenging for law enforcement agencies to coordinate efforts and investigate fraudulent activities that span geographical boundaries.


  • Profits - Exit scams can generate substantial profits for scammers who deceive investors and vanish with their money.
  • Anonymity - Cryptocurrencies offer a certain level of anonymity, making it easier for scammers to execute exit scams without revealing identities.
  • Lack of Regulation - The decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies means limited regulatory oversight, allowing exit scams to thrive as scammers exploit loopholes and avoid legal consequences.
  • Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) - Exit scams are often linked to ICOs, which enable projects to raise funds by selling tokens to investors. The unregulated nature of ICOs makes them an attractive platform for scammers to carry out fraudulent activities.


  • Loss of Investor Funds - The most significant disadvantage of exit scams is the financial loss suffered by investors who trusted and invested in the project.
  • Damage to Trust - Exit scams erode trust in the cryptocurrency space, making it difficult for legitimate projects to gain traction. Investors become more skeptical and hesitant to participate in new projects, hindering industry growth and innovation.
  • Reputation Damage - Exit scams tarnish the reputation of cryptocurrencies as a whole. The association of scams with the industry creates a negative perception among the general public, reinforcing the belief that cryptocurrencies are primarily used for illegal activities.
  • Legal Implications - Despite some level of anonymity in cryptocurrencies, exit scam perpetrators can still face legal consequences. Authorities are increasingly cracking down on fraudulent activities in the crypto space, leading to potential legal repercussions for scammers.