Ethereum Smart Contract: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research September 15, 2023

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  • Smart contracts are decentralized self-executing agreements on Ethereum blockchain enabling trustless automation of transactions and processes
  • Ethereum is a blockchain platform that introduced smart contracts, allowing developers to build decentralized applications and execute automated agreements
  • Smart contracts on Ethereum operate based on predefined conditions, reducing fraud risk and ensuring agreement adherence
  • They also have disadvantages like immutability challenges, complexity, lack of legal framework, dependency on oracles and scalability issues


Smart contracts are decentralized self-executing agreements on Ethereum blockchain enabling trustless automation of transactions and processes. Notably, Ethereum smart contracts can interact with other smart contracts and decentralized apps, or dapps on the network. This interoperability allows developers to create complex decentralized systems by combining multiple smart contracts. It also enables the development of decentralized finance (DeFi) applications, decentralized exchanges, and various other applications leveraging smart contracts.

A Brief History

Understanding Ethereum smart contracts requires exploring their historical context. In 2013, Vitalik Buterin published a whitepaper proposing Ethereum. The Ethereum Foundation, a Swiss nonprofit organization, was established to oversee its development. A crowdfunding campaign in 2014 raised funds, and in July 2015, Ethereum's genesis block marked the official launch.

Ethereum Smart Contract: Everything to Know

A smart contract is a computer program running on the Ethereum blockchain. It automates agreement execution, eliminating intermediaries, and providing transparency and security. Smart contracts are written in Solidity, a programming language, and stored on the Ethereum blockchain, making them immutable and tamper-proof.

Smart contracts on Ethereum operate based on predefined conditions. Once met, the contract automatically executes specified actions. For example, a simple smart contract could release funds to a seller when a buyer confirms receipt. Automation reduces fraud risk and ensures agreement adherence.

Ethereum smart contracts use the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), a Turing-complete runtime environment. The EVM processes instructions and computations, enabling smart contract execution. It ensures decentralized consensus among Ethereum network nodes, making the system resistant to censorship.

Developers deploy smart contracts on Ethereum by paying gas fees. Gas represents computational effort for executing specific operations within a smart contract. Gas fees, paid in ether (ETH), incentivize miners to process and validate transactions. More complex and resource-intensive smart contracts require higher gas fees.

Getting Started

To use Ethereum smart contracts, it's important to understand the underlying technology of the Ethereum blockchain. Ethereum is a decentralized platform for building and deploying smart contracts. It uses a blockchain to record and validate transactions, ensuring transparency and immutability.

Users interact with smart contracts through decentralized applications (dapps) or web-based interfaces. These interfaces allow users to deploy, interact with, and manage smart contracts using their Ethereum addresses.

Creating a smart contract involves defining its logic and behavior in a programming language called Solidity. Solidity is designed for writing smart contracts on Ethereum. Once written, the contract is compiled into bytecode that can be executed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).

Unique Aspects

Trustless Execution: Smart contracts operate on a trustless system. Participants can engage in transactions and agreements without explicit trust in each other. The contract's code serves as the arbiter, automatically enforcing the agreed-upon terms without intermediaries.

Immutability : Once deployed on the Ethereum blockchain, a smart contract becomes immutable. The code and terms cannot be altered or tampered with. Immutability ensures the contract's integrity and allows parties to rely on its original execution.

Decentralization: Smart contracts run on a decentralized network of computers called nodes. This decentralization provides censorship resistance and enhances security and resilience.

Programmability: Unlike traditional contracts, Ethereum smart contracts are programmable. They can execute complex logic and automate actions based on predefined conditions. This programmability enables the creation of decentralized applications, DeFi protocols, and DAOs.

Interoperability: Ethereum smart contracts can interact with other contracts and tokens on the network. This interoperability allows for seamless integration of different applications and services, fostering a vibrant ecosystem of interconnected dapps.


  • Efficiency: Smart contracts remove the need for intermediaries like lawyers or brokers, as the code enforces the agreement's terms. This simplifies the process, reduces paperwork and saves time and costs.
  • Transparency: All transactions and interactions on the Ethereum blockchain are recorded and publicly visible. Smart contracts utilize this transparency, ensuring all parties have access to the same information. This fosters trust and minimizes fraud or manipulation.
  • Security: Smart contracts are built on blockchain technology, offering a high level of security. Once deployed, smart contracts become tamper-proof and resistant to censorship. The decentralized nature of the Ethereum network makes it challenging for malicious actors to manipulate or alter contract terms.
  • Accuracy: Smart contracts operate based on predefined rules and conditions, reducing the risk of human error. This increases contract execution accuracy, minimizing disputes and misunderstandings.
  • Automation: Smart contracts are self-executing, automatically fulfilling agreed-upon actions when predetermined conditions are met. This eliminates manual intervention and reduces potential delays or errors.
  • Cost Savings: By eliminating intermediaries and automating contract execution, smart contracts significantly reduce costs associated with traditional agreements. This makes them particularly beneficial for industries involving complex transactions, such as supply chain management, insurance, and finance.


  • Immutability: While the immutability of smart contracts enhances security, it can also be a drawback. Once deployed, smart contract code and terms are not easily changed. Rectifying errors or bugs may require creating a new contract or implementing a complex upgrade mechanism.
  • Complexity: Developing and auditing smart contracts requires coding skills and a deep understanding of blockchain technology. Errors or vulnerabilities in the code can lead to substantial financial losses or exploitation by malicious actors.
  • Lack of Legal Framework: As smart contracts are relatively new, legal frameworks and regulations are still evolving. This creates uncertainty and potential legal challenges, especially during disputes. Enforcing or interpreting smart contracts under existing legal systems can be difficult.
  • Dependency on Oracles: Smart contracts often rely on oracles to interact with external data sources. Oracles introduce a potential point of failure or manipulation, as the accuracy and reliability of the data they provide can be compromised.
  • Scalability: The Ethereum network, hosting smart contracts, has encountered scalability challenges due to limited transaction processing capacity. This can result in network congestion and higher transaction fees during periods of high demand. Scalability solutions like layer 2 protocols are being developed to address these issues.