Ethereum Name Service: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research August 17, 2023

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  • Ethereum Name Service (ENS) is a decentralized naming system on the Ethereum blockchain enabling users to replace complex addresses with human-readable names
  • ENS was proposed in 2016 and launched in 2017 as a way to improve the user experience of interacting with Ethereum
  • ENS allows users to register human-readable domain names that represent Ethereum addresses and supports custom top-level domains
  • ENS offers enhanced user experience, interoperability, decentralization, security and name ownership


Ethereum Name Service (ENS) is a decentralized naming system on the Ethereum blockchain enabling users to replace complex addresses with human-readable names. In the world of cryptocurrency, addresses are usually represented by a string of alphanumeric characters that can be difficult for humans to remember or communicate effectively.

ENS aims to solve this problem by allowing users to register and manage domain names that can be associated with Ethereum addresses. These domain names can be used to send and receive cryptocurrencies, interact with smart contracts and access decentralized applications.

A Brief History

ENS was proposed by Nick Johnson in 2016 as a way to improve the user experience of interacting with Ethereum. It was officially launched on the Ethereum mainnet in May 2017. Since then, ENS has gained significant traction and has become an integral part of the Ethereum ecosystem.

Ethereum Name Service: Everything to Know

To understand how ENS works, it is important to explore the key components and functionalities. At the core of ENS is the concept of a "domain name," which is a human-readable identifier that can be used to represent Ethereum addresses. Domain names in ENS consist of multiple levels separated by dots, similar to traditional web addresses.

The top-level domain (TLD) in ENS is ".eth," which is the default TLD for Ethereum addresses. However, ENS also supports the registration of other TLDs, allowing users to create custom domain names that suit specific needs. For example, a user could register the domain name "myname.crypto" or "mybusiness.eth" to associate it with an Ethereum address.

To register a domain name in ENS, users need to go through a registration process and pay a fee in ether (ETH). Once a domain name is registered, the user becomes the owner and has full control over the associated Ethereum address. This means that the user can update the address associated with the domain name or transfer ownership to another Ethereum address.

One of the key features of ENS is the ability to resolve human-readable domain names to Ethereum addresses. This is achieved through a decentralized lookup system, wherein ENS resolvers are used to map domain names to the corresponding Ethereum addresses. Resolvers can be implemented by anyone and are responsible for providing the mapping information.

ENS also supports subdomains, which allow users to create hierarchical naming structures. For example, a user could create the subdomain "blog.myname.eth" to represent a personal blog, while still maintaining ownership and control over the parent domain "myname.eth."

Getting Started

To get started with ENS, users need an Ethereum wallet that supports ENS integration. Once a wallet is set up, users can easily register a domain name by interacting with the ENS smart contract. The registration process involves choosing a desired domain name and submitting a bid. If no one else has already registered the chosen name, the user becomes the owner of that domain name after a specific period. If someone else has already registered the name, users can place a higher bid to potentially acquire it.

Once a domain name is registered, users can associate various resources with it. This includes linking cryptocurrency addresses such as Ethereum or Bitcoin addresses to the domain. This association makes it more convenient for users to send and receive funds by using human-readable domain names instead of long, complex addresses. Additionally, ENS supports the creation of decentralized websites through InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) integration, allowing users to associate domain names with decentralized web content.

Unique Aspects

ENS offers several unique aspects that differentiate it from traditional domain name systems. Firstly, ENS is built on the Ethereum blockchain, which means it benefits from the security, immutability and decentralization of the blockchain. This ensures that domain ownership and associated resources cannot be tampered with or censored by centralized authorities.

Secondly, ENS introduces the concept of "resolver contracts." These contracts allow users to associate different types of resources with domain names. For example, a resolver contract can be used to map a domain name to a cryptocurrency address, a decentralized website or even a decentralized chat application. This flexibility enables users to leverage ENS for a wide range of purposes beyond traditional domain name systems.

Furthermore, ENS operates on a decentralized architecture, meaning it does not rely on a central authority to manage domain registrations. Instead, ownership and management of domain names are controlled by the users themselves through smart contracts. This decentralization ensures that ENS remains resistant to censorship and provides users with full control over domain names.


  • Enhanced User Experience - ENS enables users to create and manage human-readable addresses, making it easier for individuals to send and receive cryptocurrencies. Rather than relying on long hexadecimal addresses, users can utilize names that are more familiar and memorable.
  • Interoperability - ENS operates on the Ethereum blockchain, which means it can be integrated with various Ethereum-based applications and services. This interoperability allows users to access ENS functionality across different platforms and decentralized applications (dapps), enhancing convenience and accessibility.
  • Decentralization - ENS is built on the Ethereum blockchain, a decentralized network that is resistant to censorship and control. By leveraging blockchain technology, ENS eliminates the need for centralized authorities to manage domain names, ensuring that ownership and control remain in the hands of users.
  • Security - ENS utilizes the security features of the Ethereum blockchain, including the immutability and tamper-resistant nature of blockchain transactions. This ensures that domain name ownership and associated records are secured and cannot be altered by malicious actors.
  • Name Ownership - ENS allows users to register and own domain names, similar to the traditional domain name system. This ownership provides users with control over names and prevents others from using or transferring them without permission.


  • Cost - Registering a domain name on ENS requires payment of a registration fee, which can vary depending on the popularity and length of the desired name. Additionally, users need to pay ongoing renewal fees to maintain ownership of domain names. These costs may be a barrier for some users, especially those with limited financial resources.
  • Scalability - As the popularity of ENS grows, scalability may become a challenge. The Ethereum blockchain has faced scalability issues in the past, resulting in network congestion and higher transaction fees. If not addressed, these scalability limitations could impact the performance and usability of ENS.
  • Centralized Gateways - While ENS itself is decentralized, the process of converting human-readable names to Ethereum addresses involves centralized gateways known as "registrars." These registrars act as intermediaries between the ENS system and the traditional internet, potentially introducing centralization vulnerabilities.
  • Vulnerability to Phishing Attacks - ENS domain names, like traditional domain names, are susceptible to phishing attacks. Malicious actors can create domain names similar to popular ones and trick users into revealing sensitive information or sending funds to the wrong addresses. Users must exercise caution and verify the authenticity of domain names before interacting with them.
  • Dependency on Ethereum - ENS is reliant on the Ethereum blockchain and its infrastructure. Any issues or limitations within the Ethereum network could impact the functionality and availability of ENS. This dependency on a single blockchain introduces potential risks and limitations.