Cryptocurrency: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research October 29, 2023

Image for Cryptocurrency: Everything to Know


  • Cryptocurrency is a digital form of money that employs cryptography to facilitate secure transactions, while operating independently of central banks
  • As a digital form of value, cryptocurrency operates on a decentralized network called a blockchain, enabling direct peer-to-peer transactions without intermediaries
  • Cryptocurrencies employ cryptographic techniques to secure transactions and regulate the creation of new units, thereby ensuring ownership and security
  • Advantages of cryptocurrencies include robust security, transparency, financial inclusion, lower transaction fees, faster transactions and global reach.


Cryptocurrency is a digital form of money that uses cryptography for secure transactions and operates independently of central banks.

Traditional financial systems rely on centralized authorities, such as banks or governments, to facilitate and verify transactions. In contrast, cryptocurrencies operate on decentralized networks called blockchains. A blockchain is a distributed ledger that records all transactions across a network of computers. This decentralized structure eliminates the need for intermediaries and enables peer-to-peer transactions, enhancing transparency and reducing costs.

A Brief History

Cryptocurrency traces its roots back to the late 2000s when Bitcoin was introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto - an anonymous person or group. Bitcoin's whitepaper, titled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System," outlined a decentralized digital currency operating on a distributed ledger called the blockchain.

Bitcoin's launch in 2009 marked a new era in the fields of finance and technology by providing an alternative to traditional financial systems. By operating as a secure and transparent method of value transfer, it garnered significant traction in the field. Its success paved the way for the development of numerous other cryptocurrencies, each with its own unique features and use cases.

Cryptocurrency: Everything to Know

Blockchain Technology: Blockchain functions as the foundation of cryptocurrencies. It is a decentralized digital ledger that records all crypto-based transactions across a network of computers. Transactions are grouped into blocks and added to a chain of previous transactions, creating an immutable record. In this manner, Blockchain ensures transparency and security, while eliminating the need for a central authority to verify transactions.

Cryptographic Security: Cryptocurrencies rely on cryptographic techniques to secure transactions and regulate the creation of new units. Public-key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography, is commonly used and involves the generation of a pair of keys: A public key for receiving funds and a private key for signing transactions, ensuring ownership and security.

Mining: This is a process that entails creating new cryptocurrency units and validating transactions on the blockchain. Miners employ powerful computers to solve complex mathematical problems. Each time such a problem is solved, new blocks get added to the blockchain. Miners are rewarded with newly minted cryptocurrency units for their computational efforts. Mining also plays a crucial role in maintaining blockchain security and integrity.

Altcoins: Or alternative coins, are cryptocurrencies other than bitcoin. As the cryptocurrency ecosystem expanded, numerous altcoins developed, each with their own set of unique features and objectives. Examples of popular altcoins include ether, XRP, litecoin and bitcoin cash. Altcoins typically address specific limitations affecting Bitcoin or additional functionalities.

Smart Contracts: These are self-executing contracts wherein the terms are directly incorporated into the code. They automatically execute and enforce contract terms without intermediaries. Ethereum, a prominent cryptocurrency platform, applied the concept of smart contracts. This innovation enables developers to build decentralized applications (dapps) and execute programmable agreements.

Decentralized Finance (DeFi): This uses blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies to recreate and improve traditional financial systems while eliminating intermediaries. DeFi applications include lending and borrowing platforms, decentralized exchanges and yield farming protocols. DeFi has gained significant traction since it offers users greater financial inclusivity, transparency and control over their assets.

Getting Started

To get started with cryptocurrencies, individuals must have a digital wallet in place that can securely store digital assets. A digital wallet is a software application that allows users to manage cryptocurrencies, store private keys and facilitate transactions. There are different types of wallets available, including desktop wallets, mobile wallets, hardware wallets and web-based wallets. Each type offers a set of unique advantages and considerations in terms of security, convenience and accessibility.

Once a wallet is set up, users can acquire cryptocurrencies through various methods. Cryptocurrency exchanges, which are online platforms that enable users to buy, sell and trade different cryptocurrencies, are most commonly used to procure cryptocurrencies. These exchanges provide a marketplace where buyers and sellers can interact and exchange digital assets. It is important to choose a reputable exchange with robust security measures which deals with a wide selection of cryptocurrencies.

Another method for acquiring cryptocurrencies is through mining. This is the process of validating transactions and adding them to the blockchain. By using powerful computers, miners solve complex mathematical problems to receive newly minted cryptocurrencies as a reward. However, mining can be resource-intensive and requires specialized hardware and technical knowledge.

Unique Aspects

The use of cryptography to secure cryptocurrency transactions and regulate the creation of new units is a unique aspect. Cryptocurrencies employ cryptographic algorithms to encrypt transaction data, ensuring confidentiality and integrity. They also utilize consensus mechanisms, such as proof-of-work or proof-of-stake, to validate transactions and maintain the integrity of the blockchain. These mechanisms incentivize participants to act honestly and prevent malicious actors from manipulating the system.

Cryptocurrencies also offer the potential for financial inclusion, especially for individuals who are unbanked or underbanked. Traditional banking systems often pose barriers to entry, such as minimum balance requirements or accessibility issues in remote areas. Cryptocurrencies, on the other hand, provide an alternative financial system that can be accessed by anyone with an internet connection. This can empower individuals in developing countries to participate in the global economy and access financial services that were previously unavailable to them.

Furthermore, cryptocurrencies have the potential to revolutionize cross-border transactions. Traditional methods of transferring money on a global scale can be slow, expensive and subject to intermediaries. Cryptocurrencies enable fast and low-cost cross-border transactions, which is augmented by their absence of intermediaries. This can have significant implications for remittances, international commerce and financial inclusion on a global scale.


  • Security: Cryptographic techniques safeguard cryptocurrencies with robust security measures, making it difficult for hackers to manipulate or forge transactions.
  • Transparency: Blockchain technology provides a transparent and immutable ledger of all transactions, preventing fraud and enhancing trust.
  • Decentralization: Cryptocurrencies operate on a decentralized network, eliminating the need for intermediaries like banks and reducing the risk of government manipulation or censorship.
  • Accessibility: Cryptocurrencies enable financial inclusion by empowering the unbanked population to access financial services, consequently enabling their participation in the global economy, through payments and value storage.
  • Lower Transaction Fees: Cryptocurrencies eliminate intermediaries, resulting in lower transaction fees, especially for cross-border transactions.
  • Faster Transactions: Cryptocurrency transactions are processed faster compared to traditional banking systems, eliminating time-consuming processes.
  • Global Reach: Cryptocurrencies allow users to send and receive payments across borders without currency conversions or foreign exchange regulations, benefiting international trade and remittances.


  • Volatility: Cryptocurrencies are infamous for price volatility, which makes them a risky option for investors and merchants due to market speculation and regulatory developments.
  • Lack of Regulation: The absence of comprehensive regulation in the cryptocurrency market makes it susceptible to fraud, scams and market manipulation.
  • Scalability: As the number of users and transactions increases, the blockchain network can become congested, resulting in slower transaction times and higher fees.
  • Energy Consumption: In order to mine cryptocurrencies, miners utilize significant computational power. This raises concerns about environmental impact, especially for Bitcoin's energy-intensive proof-of-work consensus mechanism.
  • Irreversible Transactions: Once a cryptocurrency transaction is confirmed and added to the blockchain, it becomes nearly impossible to reverse or modify. This can be a problematic mechanism in cases of accidental transactions, fraud or disputes.
  • Limited Acceptance: Cryptocurrencies are not widely accepted as a form of payment due to limited merchant adoption and regulatory restrictions imposed in certain jurisdictions.
  • Technical Complexity: Cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology may be complex to navigate for average users, leading to potential risks such as loss of funds or exposure to scams.