Crypto Taxes: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research September 21, 2023

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  • Crypto taxes are government-imposed obligations on individuals and businesses to report and pay taxes on cryptocurrency transactions
  • Buying, selling, trading or using cryptocurrencies for goods and services can trigger taxable events
  • Taxation rules vary by country, so it is important to understand associated tax obligations and reporting requirements
  • Crypto taxes have unique aspects such as cost basis, treatment of hard forks and airdrops as well as tax implications of crypto-to-crypto trades


Crypto taxes are government-imposed obligations on individuals and businesses to report and pay taxes on cryptocurrency transactions.

Even converting one cryptocurrency to another is often considered a taxable event, and profits from selling or trading cryptocurrencies are typically classified as capital gains. They can be either short-term (held for less than a year) or long-term (held for over a year), with different tax rates. Some countries require cryptocurrency gains to be reported as income, while others treat them as capital gains. Therefore, it is important to keep records of all transactions for accurate reporting.

A Brief History

Crypto tax history is closely linked to the rise of cryptocurrencies themselves. In the early days of bitcoin, there was little guidance on how to handle crypto for tax purposes. Many saw bitcoin as a way to transact outside the traditional financial system, assuming that it would be beyond the reach of tax authorities. However, as cryptocurrencies gained popularity, tax authorities took notice.

The United States Internal Revenue Service (IRS) was among the first to issue guidance on crypto taxation. In 2014, the IRS classified cryptocurrencies as property, subjecting them to capital gains tax. This meant that profits from buying, selling or exchanging cryptos would be taxable. Other countries like Australia, the United Kingdom and Canada, developed individual guidelines.

Crypto Taxes: Everything to Know

  • Classification of Cryptocurrencies . Cryptos can be classified as property, commodities or assets for tax purposes, and the classification depends on the jurisdiction. In the United States, the IRS considers cryptocurrencies as property, while other countries treat them as commodities. Thus, it is important for crypto users to know how tax authorities in specific regions classify crypto assets to determine applicable tax rules.
  • Taxable Events . Taxable events in the crypto world include selling or exchanging cryptos, mining activities, receiving crypto as payment and airdrops or forks. Each event has different tax implications, such as capital gains tax or income tax, depending on the jurisdiction and holding period.
  • Capital Gains Tax . Capital gains tax is commonly applied to crypto sales or exchanges and is calculated based on the difference between the purchase and selling prices. Holding crypto for over a year may qualify for long-term capital gains tax rates, which are usually more favorable.
  • Reporting Requirements . Most tax authorities require reporting of crypto transactions and gains/losses on tax returns. This involves tracking all transactions, including acquisition date, amount, value at acquisition and value at the taxable event. Failure to report can lead to penalties or legal consequences.
  • Cryptocurrency Mining . "Mining," the process of validating transactions and adding them to the blockchain, can also have tax implications. Some jurisdictions treat mining as a taxable event, considering mined crypto as income. The taxable amount is determined by the value of the mined crypto at the time of receipt.
  • International Tax Considerations . Cross-border crypto transactions introduce additional complexities. Tax treaties, foreign exchange rules and reporting requirements vary between countries. It is crucial for individuals involved in such transactions to understand and comply with tax laws in relevant jurisdictions.

Getting Started

To handle crypto taxes, users should start by understanding tax obligations according to specific regulations of their tax residencies. Tax laws vary, so users need to familiarize themselves with these precise rules. Most countries treat cryptocurrencies as taxable assets, similar to stocks or property.

To begin, users should maintain accurate records of all cryptocurrency transactions. This includes purchases, sales, trades and any other activity involving cryptocurrencies. Users should record the date, time, value and associated fees of each transaction, as well as keeping records of wallet addresses and relevant blockchain transactions.

Unique Aspects

Crypto taxes have unique aspects compared to traditional financial transactions. "Cost basis" is one such aspect, and it refers to the original value of an asset for tax purposes. In cryptocurrencies, cost basis determines capital gains or losses when selling or exchanging digital assets. It is typically based on the fair market value at acquisition.

Another unique aspect is the treatment of hard forks and airdrops. A "hard fork" occurs when a blockchain network undergoes significant protocol changes, creating a new cryptocurrency. New coins received through a hard fork are generally taxable income at fair market value.

"Airdrops" involve distributing free tokens to cryptocurrency holders and can be taxable events. The received tokens' value is usually treated as ordinary income. Users should make sure to keep track of hard forks and airdrops and report them on tax returns.

"Crypto-to-crypto trades" also have unique tax implications, as many jurisdictions consider trading one cryptocurrency for another as a taxable event. When exchanging bitcoin for ether, for example, users must calculate and report any resulting capital gains or losses. Users should also determine the fair market value of each cryptocurrency at the time of the trade for accurate tax calculations.


  • Regulatory Clarity . Cryptocurrency tax regulations offer clear guidance for individuals and businesses involved in crypto transactions. Clear regulations reduce uncertainty and promote transparency and accountability in the crypto ecosystem.
  • Legitimacy . Implementing cryptocurrency tax laws adds legitimacy to this digital asset class. By treating them as taxable assets, governments acknowledge the existence and value of cryptocurrencies.
  • Funding Public Services . Cryptocurrency taxes contribute to funding public services like healthcare, education and infrastructure. Tax revenues generated from cryptocurrencies can support government initiatives and benefit society as a whole.
  • Mitigating Money Laundering and Fraud . Taxation helps combat money laundering and fraudulent activities related to cryptocurrencies. By enforcing tax regulations, authorities can track and monitor crypto transactions, making it harder for individuals to engage in illicit activities undetected.
  • Encouraging Compliance . Cryptocurrency tax laws encourage individuals and businesses to comply with regulations. Penalties for non-compliance incentivize taxpayers to accurately report crypto activities and pay the appropriate taxes.


  • Complex Reporting . Cryptocurrency taxation can be complex and challenging to navigate. Determining the tax implications of each transaction, calculating gains or losses and maintaining accurate records of crypto activities can be time-consuming and confusing.
  • Lack of Standardization . There is no global standardization in cryptocurrency tax regulations. Thus, each country has specific rules, making it difficult for individuals and businesses operating across borders to comply with multiple jurisdictions.
  • Volatility . Cryptocurrencies are known for price volatility, and associated values can fluctuate significantly in short periods, resulting in tax liabilities that may not align with available funds. This poses challenges for taxpayers who need to pay taxes on unrealized gains.
  • Privacy Concerns . Cryptocurrency tax regulations often require individuals to disclose personal information and transaction details, raising privacy and data security concerns. Some people may hesitate to comply with tax regulations due to fears of misuse of personal information.
  • Regulatory Changes . Cryptocurrency regulations are constantly evolving, leading to rapid changes in tax laws. Keeping up with the latest updates and ensuring compliance with ever-changing rules can be burdensome for individuals and businesses in the crypto space.