Crypto for Dummies: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research October 31, 2023

Image for Crypto for Dummies: Everything to Know


  • "Crypto for dummies" is a simplified introduction to the crypto ecosystem and cryptocurrencies, the latter of which is a set of digital tokens
  • The term "crypto for dummies" in this material is distinguished from the book series titled "Crypto for Dummies"
  • Cryptocurrencies use cryptography, specialized hardware and software and blockchain technology to accomplish transactions
  • The advantages of cryptocurrencies are increased privacy, fast cross-border transactions and financial inclusion for underbanked and unbanked populations


One key feature of cryptocurrencies is that many of them, including bitcoin (BTC), have a limited supply of tokens. Ether (ETH) is an exception to this rule because the supply of this token is not limited. Another key feature of cryptocurrencies is that they are divisible into smaller units. For example, Bitcoin is divisible into satoshis. There are 100 million satoshis in one BTC. The existence of small units facilitates microtransactions.

Cryptocurrencies offer several advantages over traditional financial systems. They provide increased privacy and security through cryptographic algorithms. They also enable fast and low-cost cross-border transactions, which makes them attractive for remittances and international commerce.

A Brief History

The history of crypto dates back to 2009, with the introduction of BTC. Bitcoin's popularity led to the launch of many other cryptocurrencies, called altcoins. Altcoins seek to pioneer features that distinguish them from BTC. Notable altcoins beyond ETH include ripple (XRP), litecoin (LTC) and bitcoin cash (BCH).

Over time, cryptocurrencies have experienced significant price volatility and speculative investment activity. BTC's rise in 2017 attracted mainstream attention and sparked a wider public interest in the crypto ecosystem. The market subsequently corrected, but cryptocurrencies have continued to evolve. Applications for cryptocurrencies include decentralized finance (DeFi), non-fungible tokens (NFTs) and smart contracts.

Crypto for Dummies: Everything to Know

  • Wallets: Cryptocurrency (crypto) wallets are digital tools for storing, managing and interacting with cryptocurrencies. These can be software-based, online or offline, or hardware devices designed for secure storage.
  • Public and Private Keys: Cryptocurrency transactions require public and private keys. Public keys are addresses for receiving funds. Private keys are secret codes that grant access to the associated funds. Keeping private keys secure is crucial to protect cryptocurrency holdings.
  • Blockchain: The blockchain is a decentralized ledger that records all transactions made with a particular cryptocurrency. It ensures transparency, security and immutability through consensus mechanisms such as proof-of-work (PoW) and proof-of-stake (PoS).
  • Mining: This is the process of creating new cryptocurrency units and verifying transactions on a blockchain. Miners use computational power to solve complex mathematical problems. They receive newly minted cryptocurrency and transaction fees as a reward.
  • Cryptocurrency Exchanges: These are platforms for buying, selling and trading cryptocurrencies. They facilitate the conversion of cryptocurrencies into other digital assets like NFTs or traditional fiat currencies.
  • Volatility: Cryptocurrencies are known for price volatility. This term means significant price fluctuations. This volatility presents opportunities and risks for investors and traders.
  • Security: Most Cryptocurrencies offer enhanced security through cryptography, but it is helpful to implement additional security measures. Such measures include using strong passwords, enabling two-factor authentication (2FA) and being cautious of phishing attempts and scams.
  • Regulation: The regulatory landscape for cryptocurrencies varies. Some countries have embraced cryptocurrencies and established clear regulations. Others have taken a cautious approach or imposed restrictions. Understanding the local legal and regulatory framework helps a user avoid legal and financial penalties.

Getting Started

Choose a digital wallet to securely store, send and receive cryptocurrencies. Options include online wallets, which are accessible through web browsers, hardware wallets or physical devices for offline storage and software wallets and applications for computers or mobile devices.

Acquire cryptocurrency through exchanges, mining or as payment for goods and services. Cryptocurrency exchanges are online platforms where a user can buy and sell cryptocurrencies using traditional fiat currencies or other cryptocurrencies. The user should select a reputable exchange with a user-friendly interface and strong security measures.

Unique Aspects

  • Blockchain technology. Transactions are grouped into blocks and linked to previous blocks, forming an unchangeable chain. This decentralized nature prevents control by a single entity. A blockchain is relatively resistant to censorship and fraud.
  • Limited supply. Many cryptocurrencies have a predetermined maximum supply. For example, BTC has a maximum supply of 21 million coins. This scarcity can potentially increase a token's value over time as demand grows and supply becomes limited.
  • Provide a high level of privacy and anonymity. While transactions are transparent on the blockchain, user identities are often pseudonymous. They can be identified to an extent by unique wallet addresses.
  • Introduction of Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) and token sales. Such events enable startups and projects to raise funds by selling a percentage of their newly created tokens to investors. These tokens serve various purposes within the project's ecosystem. ICOs offer the potential of high returns. Yet they come with risks such as scams and project failures.


  • Security - Cryptocurrencies use advanced cryptography to secure transactions and prevent manipulation or counterfeiting. This provides a higher level of security compared to traditional financial systems.
  • Privacy - Cryptocurrencies offer a certain level of privacy. While transactions are recorded on the blockchain, the transactions do not record personal information directly linked to them. This pseudonymous nature provides desired financial autonomy.
  • Accessibility - Cryptocurrencies can provide financial services to unbanked and underbanked populations worldwide. With a smartphone and internet access, anyone can participate in the crypto ecosystem.
  • Global Transactions - Cryptocurrencies enable fast cross-border transactions. Transactions can be executed directly between parties. They reduce costs and eliminate intermediaries.
  • Financial Inclusion - Cryptocurrencies empower individuals with limited access to traditional banking. They offer a decentralized and inclusive financial system. This allows individuals to store, send and receive funds without relying on traditional institutions.


  • Volatility - Cryptocurrencies are known for their price volatility. The value can fluctuate rapidly, posing risks for investors and everyday users. Volatility is influenced by market speculation, regulations and technology.
  • Lack of Regulation - The decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies presents regulatory challenges. While tokens provide advantages like financial autonomy and privacy, they also open the door to illicit activities. For example, actors engaged in illegal activities such as drug production may use cryptocurrency transactions to obscure details regarding drug sales. Lack of clear regulatory frameworks makes it difficult for governments to protect the public from harmful activities, protect consumers from fraud and maintain financial stability.
  • Technical Complexity - Understanding and using cryptocurrencies can be intimidating for newcomers. The underlying technology involves complex concepts. Securely managing private keys and wallets can be overwhelming for those unfamiliar with digital security. Providing information and guides to new users helps resolve some of these concerns.
  • Energy Consumption - Some cryptocurrencies, like those that use a PoW consensus mechanism, have faced criticism for their energy consumption. The mining process requires significant computational power and electricity. Critics argue that this energy consumption is unsustainable and contributes to environmental problems.
  • Irreversible Transactions - Once a cryptocurrency transaction is confirmed on the blockchain, it is virtually impossible to reverse. This provides security. Yet it means that it is difficult to correct a mistake or recover money after an incident of fraud. A user should exercise caution and double-check the details of transactions.