Crypto Bubble: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research November 2, 2023

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  • A "crypto bubble" is a rapid and unsustainable increase in a cryptocurrency price followed by a sharp decline, driven by market hype and investor irrationality
  • Factors contributing to the formation of crypto bubbles include the "fear of missing out" (FOMO), speculative trading, market manipulation and media attention
  • The bursting of a crypto bubble can result in panic selling, significant losses for investors and erosion of public trust in cryptocurrencies
  • Crypto bubbles have occurred multiple times in the history of cryptocurrencies, and they are characterized by high volatility


A crypto bubble is a rapid and unsustainable increase in a cryptocurrency price followed by a sharp decline, driven by market hype and investor irrationality. These bubbles are often driven by speculative buying, hype and excessive market optimism, causing the prices of cryptocurrencies to surge to levels far beyond associated intrinsic values. Eventually, market sentiment changes, leading to a burst in the bubble, resulting in a sharp price decline as investors rush to sell. Crypto bubbles have occurred several times throughout the history of cryptocurrencies, with notable examples including the bubble of 2017. They serve as a reminder of the high volatility and risk associated with the cryptocurrency market.

A Brief History

To understand the crypto bubble phenomenon, it is important to look at the historical context. Bitcoin, the first and most well-known cryptocurrency, experienced significant price volatility in the early years, as the price surged from a few cents in 2010 to over $1,000 in 2013 before dropping to around $200. This extreme price fluctuation caught the attention of investors and paved the way for subsequent crypto bubbles.

Crypto Bubble: Everything to Know

A crypto bubble refers to a period of rapid and unsustainable price increase in the cryptocurrency market, followed by a sharp and significant crash. It is characterized by a speculative frenzy driven by market hype and investor irrationality. During a bubble, cryptocurrency prices inflate beyond inherent values, creating an asset bubble that eventually bursts.

Several factors contribute to the formation and expansion of a crypto bubble. Firstly, the "fear of missing out" (FOMO) drives investors to join the bandwagon, fearing they will miss out on significant gains. This FOMO mentality becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy as more investors enter the market, driving prices higher.

Speculative trading and market manipulation also play a significant role in crypto bubble formation. Some investors engage in short-term trading strategies, aiming to profit from price fluctuations rather than the long-term value of the technology. This speculative behavior amplifies market volatility and leads to unsustainable price increases.

Media attention and hype surrounding specific cryptocurrencies or blockchain projects can further fuel a bubble. Positive news coverage and endorsements from influential figures attract inexperienced investors who make impulsive decisions based on emotions rather than sound analysis.

The bursting of a crypto bubble can have severe consequences for investors and the broader cryptocurrency market. Panic selling often occurs, resulting in significant losses for those who bought at the peak of the bubble. Moreover, a burst bubble can erode public trust in cryptocurrencies, hindering adoption and innovation in the industry.

Getting Started

To understand crypto bubbles, it is also important to grasp the basic concept of cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies are digital or virtual currencies that use cryptography for security. They operate on decentralized networks called "blockchains," which record and verify transactions. Unlike traditional fiat currencies like the U.S. dollar or Euro, cryptocurrencies are not issued or regulated by a central authority like a government or central bank.

The decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies and potential for high returns have attracted many investors and speculators. However, this increased interest, combined with other market factors, can lead to the formation of crypto bubbles.

Unique Aspects

Several unique aspects of the cryptocurrency market contribute to the formation and bursting of crypto bubbles. One key factor is the lack of intrinsic value in most cryptocurrencies. Unlike traditional assets like stocks or commodities, cryptocurrencies often lack underlying assets or cash flows that can be used to determine fundamental values. Instead, value is largely driven by market sentiment, speculation and perceived utility.

Another aspect that can fuel crypto bubbles is herd behavior among market participants. Human psychology plays a significant role in financial markets, and FOMO can drive investors to enter the market when prices are rising rapidly. This behavior can create a cycle wherein increasing demand drives prices even higher, attracting more participants until the bubble eventually bursts.

Furthermore, the cryptocurrency market's relatively small size and limited liquidity make it vulnerable to manipulation and price manipulation. In some cases, a few influential individuals or groups can artificially inflate the price of a particular cryptocurrency, creating a false sense of value and attracting unsuspecting investors. When the manipulation is exposed or the bubble reaches a tipping point, prices can collapse rapidly, resulting in significant losses for those who bought in at inflated prices.


  • Potential for High Returns - During a crypto bubble, cryptocurrency prices can skyrocket, giving investors a chance to make substantial profits if they time investments correctly.
  • Increased Adoption and Awareness - Crypto bubbles attract significant media attention, leading to more public awareness and interest in cryptocurrencies. This exposure can contribute to the broader adoption of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology.
  • Technological Innovation - The influx of capital during a crypto bubble can fuel technological advancements in the cryptocurrency ecosystem. Developers and entrepreneurs are motivated to create new projects and improve existing ones, leading to innovation in scalability, privacy and usability.
  • Wealth Redistribution - Wealth can be redistributed by crypto bubbles as early adopters and savvy investors who entered the market before the bubble capitalize on the price surge. This redistribution can challenge traditional financial systems and provide opportunities for individuals who may have been excluded from traditional investment avenues.


  • Market Volatility - Extreme price volatility characterizes crypto bubbles, which can result in significant financial losses for investors who enter the market at the peak of the bubble. The unpredictable nature of these price movements can make it challenging for investors to make informed decisions and manage risk effectively.
  • Regulatory Uncertainty - Crypto bubbles attract regulatory attention as regulators aim to protect investors and maintain market stability. This scrutiny can lead to regulatory actions and interventions that may impact the cryptocurrency market, causing uncertainty and potentially hindering growth.
  • Investor FOMO and Irrational Exuberance - FOMO and irrational exuberance can drive investors to make impulsive and uninformed investment decisions during a crypto bubble. This behavior can contribute to market inefficiencies and the formation of speculative bubbles, ultimately resulting in significant price corrections.
  • Negative Public Perception - Crypto bubbles can reinforce negative perceptions of cryptocurrencies among skeptics and critics. Specifically, the association with speculative behavior and market instability may overshadow the potential benefits of blockchain technology and hinder broader adoption.