Confirmation: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research August 20, 2023

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  • Cryptocurrency confirmation is the process of verifying and validating transactions on a blockchain network, ensuring their immutability and security
  • Confirmation traces to Bitcoin's proof-of-work consensus mechanism, where transactions are validated by nodes and added to the blockchain by miners
  • Multiple confirmations increase transaction security and decrease the probability of reversal or alteration
  • Cryptocurrency confirmation enhances security, decentralization, immutability, efficiency and accessibility


Cryptocurrency confirmation is the process of verifying and validating transactions on a blockchain network, ensuring their immutability and security. Cryptocurrencies operate on decentralized networks called blockchains, which are essentially public ledgers that record all transactions. Each transaction is grouped into a block, and these blocks are linked together in a chronological order, forming a chain of blocks. The process of confirming transactions involves verifying the validity of these blocks and ensuring consensus among network participants.

A Brief History

Cryptocurrency confirmation emerged with the development of decentralized digital currencies like Bitcoin. Confirmations represent the process of verifying and validating transactions on the blockchain through a consensus mechanism, providing confidence that transactions are legitimate and irreversible. This innovation addressed the challenge of double-spending and laid the foundation for secure and trustless peer-to-peer transactions within the cryptocurrency ecosystem.

The concept of confirmation in cryptocurrencies traces back to the creation of Bitcoin, the first decentralized digital currency. Bitcoin's founder, known as Satoshi Nakamoto, introduced the concept of proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanism, which is the foundation for confirming transactions in Bitcoin and many other cryptocurrencies.

What is Confirmation?

When a transaction is initiated in a cryptocurrency network, it is broadcasted to all the nodes (computers) in the network. These nodes then validate the transaction by checking if the sender has sufficient funds and if the transaction adheres to the network's rules. Once a node confirms the transaction's validity, it propagates it to other nodes in the network.

Miners, special nodes in the network, play a crucial role in confirming transactions. Miners compete to solve complex mathematical puzzles, and the first miner to solve the puzzle adds a new block of transactions to the blockchain. This process is known as mining. Through mining, transactions are confirmed and added to the blockchain in a sequential order.

To ensure the security and immutability of the blockchain, multiple confirmations are required. Each new block added to the blockchain increases the number of confirmations for all preceding blocks. The number of confirmations serves as a measure of the transaction's finality and the level of security it has obtained.

In general, the more confirmations a transaction has, the more secure it is considered. For example, in Bitcoin, it is recommended to wait for at least six confirmations before considering a transaction as fully confirmed and irreversible. This is because the probability of a transaction being reversed or altered decreases significantly with each additional confirmation.

Confirmation time varies depending on the cryptocurrency and the network's congestion. Some cryptocurrencies, like Bitcoin, have longer confirmation times due to the computational complexity of mining. Other cryptocurrencies, such as newer and more scalable ones, may offer faster confirmation times.

Getting Started

To grasp the concept of cryptocurrency confirmation, it is essential to understand the fundamental workings of blockchain technology. Blockchain is a decentralized ledger that records and verifies transactions across a network of computers, known as nodes. Each transaction is bundled into a block, which is then added to the chain of blocks, forming a chronological sequence of transactions.

When a user initiates a cryptocurrency transaction, it is broadcasted to the network and awaits confirmation. Miners, who are participants in the network, play a vital role in confirming transactions. Their primary task is to validate transactions and add them to the blockchain by solving complex mathematical puzzles.

Unique Aspects

Cryptocurrency confirmation introduces several unique aspects that contribute to the security and reliability of blockchain networks. These aspects include the concept of consensus, the role of miners, and the confirmation time.

  • Consensus: Consensus refers to the agreement among network participants on the validity and order of transactions. In most blockchain networks, achieving consensus is crucial to prevent double-spending, where a user attempts to spend the same cryptocurrency more than once. Through consensus mechanisms like proof-of-work (PoW) or proof-of-stake (PoS), miners or validators ensure that transactions are verified and added to the blockchain in a consistent and agreed-upon manner.
  • Miners: Miners are essential actors in the confirmation process. They dedicate computational power to solve complex mathematical puzzles, a process known as mining. By doing so, miners validate transactions and create new blocks that are added to the blockchain. Miners are incentivized through transaction fees and block rewards to confirm transactions and maintain the security of the network.
  • Confirmation Time: The confirmation time refers to the duration it takes for a transaction to be confirmed and added to the blockchain. The time required for confirmation varies depending on several factors, including the blockchain network's protocol, the number of confirmations required and network congestion. In some cases, transactions can be considered "confirmed" after a single confirmation, while in other instances, multiple confirmations may be necessary to ensure the transaction's finality.


  • Security: Cryptocurrency confirmation enhances the security of transactions by requiring multiple confirmations from independent nodes in the network. This distributed consensus mechanism makes it extremely difficult for malicious actors to manipulate or reverse transactions.
  • Decentralization: The confirmation process is decentralized, meaning that no single entity or central authority has control over it. This decentralization fosters trust and transparency in the cryptocurrency ecosystem, as no single party can unilaterally influence the confirmation of transactions.
  • Immutability: Once a transaction is confirmed and added to the blockchain, it becomes virtually immutable. This means that the transaction cannot be altered or tampered with, providing a high level of trust and reliability in the transaction history.
  • Efficiency: Cryptocurrency confirmation enables fast and efficient transactions. While traditional banking systems may take several days to process cross-border transactions, cryptocurrency transactions can be confirmed within minutes or even seconds, regardless of geographical location.
  • Accessibility: Cryptocurrency confirmation is accessible to anyone with an internet connection, allowing individuals from across the globe to participate in the network. This inclusivity promotes financial inclusion and empowers individuals who may not have access to traditional banking services.


  • Energy Consumption: The confirmation process in some cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, requires significant computational power and energy consumption. The mining process, which is integral to confirmation, involves solving complex mathematical problems. This energy-intensive process has raised concerns about its environmental impact.
  • Scalability Challenges: As the number of cryptocurrency users and transactions increases, scalability becomes a challenge for confirmation. The current confirmation mechanisms may struggle to handle a large volume of transactions, leading to delays and higher fees.
  • Potential for Double Spending: Although highly unlikely, there is a small possibility of double spending in the confirmation process. Double spending refers to the act of spending the same cryptocurrency more than once. However, the decentralized nature of blockchain technology and the confirmation process make it extremely difficult for double spending to occur.
  • Lack of Regulation: The decentralized nature of cryptocurrency confirmation also means that there is a lack of regulatory oversight. This can lead to concerns regarding security, fraud, and money laundering. However, efforts are being made by governments and regulatory bodies to establish frameworks to address these concerns.