Confidential Transactions: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research August 4, 2023

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  • Cryptocurrency confidential transactions ensure privacy by hiding transaction amounts, enhancing security and fungibility
  • This is a cryptographic technique used in cryptocurrencies to enhance privacy
  • Confidential transactions enable transaction amounts to be hidden from the public ledger, ensuring that only the involved parties know the actual amounts transacted
  • While confidential transactions provide privacy for transaction amounts, they do not compromise the traceability of transactions


Cryptocurrency confidential transactions ensure privacy by hiding transaction amounts, enhancing security and fungibility. In the realm of cryptocurrencies, transactions are typically recorded on a public ledger known as the "blockchain." While this transparency is a fundamental feature of many digital currencies, it can also raise concerns regarding privacy. Confidential transactions aim to address this issue by introducing a layer of privacy to the transaction process.

A Brief History

The concept of "confidential transactions" was first introduced by renowned cryptographer Adam Back in 2013. However, it was further developed and implemented by Gregory Maxwell, a Bitcoin Core developer, in 2015. Confidential transactions were primarily designed to address the privacy concerns associated with Bitcoin, the world's first and most well-known cryptocurrency.

Confidential Transactions: Everything to Know

Confidential transactions rely on a cryptographic technique called "Zero-Knowledge proof" (ZK-proof). ZK-proofs allow one party to prove the validity of a statement to another party without revealing any additional information beyond the statement's truthfulness. In the context of confidential transactions, ZK-proofs enable the verification of transaction amounts without disclosing the specific values involved.

To achieve confidentiality, confidential transactions employ a cryptographic commitment scheme. This scheme allows the sender of a transaction to commit to a specific amount without revealing the actual value. The commitment is created using a mathematical function that ensures the integrity of the amount while keeping it hidden from prying eyes.

To validate the transaction, a ZK-proof is generated and included in the transaction data. The proof guarantees that the sum of the inputs and outputs remains balanced, without revealing the exact amounts being transacted. This way, the network can verify the validity of the transaction without compromising the privacy of the participants.

Confidential transactions provide an additional layer of privacy by concealing the transaction amounts. While the sender and receiver identities remain pseudonymous, the amounts involved in the transaction are shielded from public view. This enhanced privacy can help prevent malicious actors from tracking and analyzing transaction patterns, thereby safeguarding the financial information of users.

Moreover, confidential transactions can be particularly beneficial in scenarios wherein the transaction amounts are sensitive or confidential. For instance, in business-to-business (B2B) transactions, where the involved parties may not want competitors or other stakeholders to gain insight into financial activities, confidential transactions can offer a valuable solution.

It is worth noting that while confidential transactions provide enhanced privacy, they do not completely obfuscate the transaction graph. The sender and receiver addresses can still be observed on the blockchain, allowing for some degree of analysis. Therefore, it is important to consider additional privacy-enhancing techniques, such as the use of anonymity-focused cryptocurrencies or mixing services, for those seeking a higher level of privacy.

Getting Started

To understand how confidential transactions work, it is essential to grasp the basics of public-key cryptography. In cryptocurrency transactions, users have a pair of cryptographic keys: A public key, which is shared with others to receive funds, and a private key, which is kept secret and used to sign transactions to prove ownership. Confidential transactions build upon this foundation by introducing a cryptographic technique called "homomorphic encryption."

Homomorphic encryption enables mathematical operations to be performed on encrypted data without decrypting it. In the context of confidential transactions, this means that the transaction amounts are encrypted using the recipient's public key before being broadcast to the network. The encryption ensures that the amounts cannot be read by anyone except the intended recipient, but it still allows the network to verify the validity of the transaction without knowing the actual amounts involved.

Unique Aspects

Confidential transactions rely on a specific cryptographic algorithm known as a "commitment scheme." A commitment scheme allows a user to commit to a value without revealing it, and later reveal the value while proving that it has not been tampered with. In the case of confidential transactions, the commitment scheme is employed to commit to the transaction amounts in an encrypted form.

The commitment scheme used in confidential transactions ensures that the sum of the transaction inputs equals the sum of the transaction outputs, maintaining the balance of funds. At the same time, it guarantees that the transaction amounts remain hidden. This property is achieved through the use of cryptographic techniques such as the "Pedersen commitment" or the more recent "Bulletproofs protocol."

One important consideration in confidential transactions is the size of the cryptographic proofs. The commitment scheme requires additional data to be included in each transaction to prove its validity. Initially, this led to larger transaction sizes, which could potentially impact scalability. However, advancements in cryptographic protocols have significantly reduced the size of these proofs, making confidential transactions more practical for real-world use.

Another aspect to consider is the distinction between confidential transactions and anonymous transactions. While confidential transactions provide privacy by hiding the transaction amounts, they do not inherently conceal the identities of the transacting parties. Additional techniques, such as using anonymous network layers or privacy-focused cryptocurrencies, may be necessary to achieve complete anonymity in cryptocurrency transactions.


  • Enhanced Privacy - Confidential transactions offer improved privacy by obscuring the transaction amounts involved. Instead of displaying the exact value being transferred, confidential transactions use cryptographic techniques to hide the specific amounts while still allowing verification of the transaction's validity. This helps protect the financial privacy of users and prevents the exposure of sensitive information.
  • Fungibility - Fungibility refers to the interchangeability of one unit of currency with another. Confidential transactions enhance fungibility by making all units of a cryptocurrency indistinguishable from each other. Since the specific amounts are hidden, it becomes impossible to identify and discriminate against specific coins based on their transaction history. This ensures that every unit of the cryptocurrency holds the same value, promoting equal treatment and wider acceptance.
  • Protection Against Blockchain Analysis - Confidential transactions make it significantly more challenging for external observers to analyze and trace the flow of funds on the blockchain. By hiding transaction amounts, it becomes harder to link addresses and identify the parties involved in a transaction. This increased resistance to blockchain analysis helps protect users' financial activities from being monitored and tracked without consent.
  • Reduced Risk of Theft - Confidential transactions can help mitigate the risk of theft by limiting the information available to potential attackers. Since specific amounts are concealed, malicious actors are less likely to target high-value transactions or attempt to exploit vulnerabilities based on the known amounts being transferred. By reducing the visibility of transaction values, confidential transactions make it harder for attackers to identify lucrative targets.
  • Business Confidentiality - Confidential transactions can be particularly advantageous for businesses. By concealing transaction amounts, companies can protect sensitive financial information from competitors or other parties that may try to gain insights into business operations. This can provide a competitive advantage by safeguarding trade secrets, negotiating positions and financial strategies.


  • Increased Computational Overhead - Implementing confidential transactions requires additional computational resources compared to regular transactions. The cryptographic techniques used to hide transaction amounts involve complex calculations, which can increase the processing time and resource requirements. This can potentially lead to slower transaction confirmation times and higher fees, especially in networks with limited scalability.
  • Potential for Error - The complexity involved in implementing confidential transactions introduces a higher probability of errors or vulnerabilities. The cryptographic protocols and algorithms used must be implemented correctly to ensure the privacy and security of transactions. Any flaws or mistakes in the implementation could compromise the confidentiality of transactions and expose sensitive information.
  • Regulatory Concerns - The enhanced privacy provided by confidential transactions has raised concerns among regulators and law enforcement agencies. The ability to conceal transaction amounts could potentially facilitate illicit activities, such as money laundering, tax evasion or the financing of illegal operations. This has led to debates and discussions regarding the balance between privacy and regulatory requirements in the cryptocurrency space.
  • Limited Adoption - Confidential transactions are not yet widely adopted across all cryptocurrencies and blockchain networks. The implementation of these features often requires significant updates to the underlying protocols and consensus mechanisms. Additionally, the trade-offs between privacy, scalability and compatibility with existing infrastructure pose challenges for widespread adoption. As a result, the benefits of confidential transactions may not be available in all cryptocurrencies or for all users.