Atomic Swaps: Everything to Know

By  Beluga Research August 8, 2023

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  • Cryptocurrency atomic swaps enable direct peer-to-peer (P2P) trades between different blockchain networks, without the need for intermediaries or exchanges
  • Atomic swaps originated in 2013 as a way to exchange cryptocurrencies without intermediaries
  • Atomic swaps rely on smart contracts and involve steps such as establishing communication, generating secret hashes and creating contract transactions
  • Challenges include technical complexity, limited liquidity, time-consuming processes, lack of regulatory framework, risks of error and scalability challenges


Cryptocurrency atomic swaps enable direct peer-to-peer (P2P) trades between different blockchain networks, without the need for intermediaries or exchanges. In the traditional financial system, when individuals want to exchange assets, they typically rely on intermediaries like banks or exchanges to facilitate the transaction. These intermediaries introduce additional costs, potential security vulnerabilities and may require users to trust third parties with their funds. Cryptocurrency atomic swaps aim to address these issues by enabling P2P transactions across different blockchain networks.

A Brief History

The concept of atomic swaps originated in 2013 when Tier Nolan, a developer, proposed the idea as a way to exchange cryptocurrencies without relying on intermediaries. However, it was not until 2017 that atomic swaps gained significant attention with the successful execution of the first cross-chain atomic swap between Bitcoin and Litecoin.

Atomic Swaps: Everything to Know

Atomic swaps rely on smart contracts, which are self-executing agreements with predefined conditions. These contracts ensure that the exchange of assets occurs only when predefined conditions are met. The process of conducting an atomic swap involves several key steps:

  • Establishing Communication - The parties involved in the swap need to establish a communication channel to negotiate and agree on the terms of the exchange. This can be done through various means, including P2P messaging protocols or decentralized communication networks.
  • Generating Secret Hashes - Each party generates a secret value and creates a cryptographic hash of that value. The hash is then shared with the counterparty without revealing the original secret.
  • Creating Contract Transactions - The participants create and sign contract transactions that lock their respective funds into a multi-signature address. These transactions ensure that neither party can access the locked funds until the swap is completed.
  • Revealing Secrets - Once the contract transactions are created, both parties reveal their secret values. By comparing the revealed secret with the previously-shared hash, each party can verify the authenticity of the counterparty's secret.
  • Claiming Funds - If the secrets match, both parties can claim the locked funds in the contract transactions. This is achieved by creating and broadcasting a transaction that spends the funds from the contract address to the respective parties' addresses.
  • Time Constraints - To prevent one party from stalling the process, atomic swaps often include time constraints. If a party fails to complete its portion of the swap within the specified period, the funds can be refunded to the original owners.

Atomic swaps can be conducted between different cryptocurrencies, as long as they support the necessary cryptographic functions. This means that atomic swaps are not limited to Bitcoin and Litecoin but can potentially be performed between various blockchain networks.

Getting Started

To understand atomic swaps, it is important to grasp the concept of interoperability between blockchain networks. Each blockchain operates on its own set of rules and protocols, making it challenging to transfer value directly between two different networks. Atomic swaps provide a solution to this problem by facilitating trustless and decentralized cross-chain transactions.

At its core, an atomic swap is a smart contract-based technology that enables the exchange of cryptocurrencies between two parties without the need for a trusted third party. The process involves the creation of a time-locked contract on each blockchain involved in the swap. These contracts ensure that the transaction can only be completed if certain predefined conditions are met. Once the conditions are satisfied, the swap is executed, and both parties receive their respective cryptocurrencies.

Unique Aspects

One of the key advantages of atomic swaps is a trustless nature. Unlike traditional exchanges, atomic swaps eliminate the need to trust a centralized intermediary to facilitate the transaction. Instead, the process is enforced by smart contracts, which are executed automatically when the predetermined conditions are met. This decentralized approach enhances security and reduces the risk of fraud or manipulation.

Another important aspect of atomic swaps is privacy-enhancing capabilities. Since the transactions occur directly between the parties involved, without the involvement of a centralized exchange, users can maintain a higher level of privacy. Atomic swaps do not require users to disclose personal information or undergo the often cumbersome and time-consuming KYC procedures associated with centralized exchanges.

Furthermore, atomic swaps enable cross-chain compatibility, allowing users to exchange cryptocurrencies that operate on different blockchain networks. This opens up a world of possibilities, as it allows for the seamless transfer of value between otherwise isolated ecosystems. For example, a user holding bitcoin can exchange it directly for ether or any other supported cryptocurrency, without the need for an intermediary token or conversion service.


  • Enhanced Privacy - Atomic swaps eliminate the need for users to disclose personal information to centralized exchanges, enhancing privacy and reducing the risk of identity theft.
  • Decentralization - By enabling P2P transactions, atomic swaps promote decentralization in the cryptocurrency ecosystem, reducing reliance on centralized exchanges.
  • Non-Custodial - Atomic swaps do not require users to deposit funds into a third-party wallet or exchange, eliminating the risk of theft or loss due to exchange hacks.
  • Lower Fees - Atomic swaps often involve lower transaction fees compared to traditional exchanges, as they eliminate the need for intermediaries and associated fees.
  • Global Accessibility - Atomic swaps allow users from different parts of the world to trade cryptocurrencies directly, without being limited by geographical boundaries or regulatory restrictions.
  • Cross-Chain Compatibility - Atomic swaps can be performed between different cryptocurrencies, enabling users to trade assets that may not be available on traditional exchanges.
  • Trustless Transactions - Atomic swaps leverage smart contracts and cryptographic techniques to ensure that transactions are executed only when both parties fulfill their obligations, eliminating the need for trust between parties.


  • Technical Complexity - Atomic swaps involve complex cryptographic protocols and require a certain level of technical knowledge to execute successfully. Users must understand the underlying technology and follow the necessary steps carefully.
  • Limited Liquidity - Atomic swaps are still relatively new and may have lower liquidity compared to established centralized exchanges. This can result in higher spreads and less favorable trading conditions for certain cryptocurrencies.
  • Time-consuming - Atomic swaps require multiple steps to complete, including the setup of the necessary smart contracts and the verification of transactions on both blockchains involved. This process can be time-consuming compared to instant trades on centralized exchanges.
  • Lack of Regulatory Framework - The regulatory landscape around atomic swaps is still evolving, and there may be legal uncertainties or restrictions in some jurisdictions. Users should be aware of the legal implications and comply with relevant regulations.
  • Risks of Error - Due to the technical nature of atomic swaps, there is a risk of user error during the process. Mistakes in inputting addresses or incorrect execution of steps can result in the loss of funds.
  • Scalability Challenges - Atomic swaps can face scalability challenges when dealing with high transaction volumes or congested blockchains. As the popularity of atomic swaps grows, scalability solutions will need to be developed to handle increased demand.