What is Aptos?

By  Diana Turner August 21, 2023

Image for What is Aptos?

Summary

  • Aptos is a layer 1 blockchain built using the Move programming language, inspired by Meta's abandoned Diem project, emphasizing scalability, reliability, safety, and evolution
  • Aptos was conceived in October 2022 by ex-Facebook employees and launched as "Aptos Autumn" five days later, utilizing the Move language for parallel transaction processing.
  • The team includes CEO Mo Shaikh and blockchain veteran Avery Ching, with roots in Meta's Diem project, focusing on scalability, safety, reliability, and upgradeability.
  • Aptos employs the Move language for smart contracts, offers features like Block-STM Engine for parallelized processing and AptosBFT consensus for sub-second finality

Overview

Aptos is a layer 1 blockchain constructed using the Move programming language, drawing inspiration from the ashes of Meta's abandoned Diem blockchain project. The bedrock of the Aptos blockchain is its unwavering focus on scalability, reliability, safety and the ability to evolve. This dynamic foundation sets the stage for a paradigm shift in the realm of layer 1 blockchains.

On October 12, 2022, the idea for Aptos first materialized in the thoughts of ex-Facebook workers. Only five days later, "Aptos Autumn," the mainnet, was launched. The Move programming language, which Meta separately created based on Rust, is what makes Aptos stand out. The foundation for Aptos' distinctive parallel transaction processing capabilities is this language, which embodies security and flexibility.

The Team Behind Aptos

Mo Shaikh, the company's CEO, and Avery Ching, a renowned veteran in the blockchain sector, launched Aptos together. Expert designers, engineers, researchers, and strategists make up the team. Notably, Aptos' roots can be seen in Meta's (previously Facebook) Diem blockchain project, with key team members working on both projects' growth.

Interest in layer 1 protocols including Ethereum, Solana and BNB Smart Chain increased in 2022. The development of NFTs revealed shortcomings in managing more traffic. The necessity for innovation was highlighted by Solana's outages and Ethereum's congestion. Aptos enters the picture with a focus on scalability, safety, dependability and upgradeability. Diem, Meta's earlier blockchain project, was developed by Aptos Labs, which was created by key Diem developers. Aptos uses proof-of-stake (PoS) for consensus.

Key Features

With a cutting-edge technology stack created to address issues of scalability, security, and efficiency, the Aptos blockchain stands apart from the competition. The major elements listed below demonstrate how Aptos accomplishes its objectives:

  • Block-STM Engine : The Block-STM (Software Transactional Memory) engine is what powers Aptos. Intelligent contract execution is being revolutionized by this cutting-edge technology. It proposes a pipelined and parallelized method for transaction processing optimization. Parallel execution is made possible by the intelligent pre-ordering and grouping of transactions. By enabling many transactions to be processed simultaneously rather than sequentially, this novel design significantly increases throughput.

The Block-STM engine uses optimistic execution in order to speed up processing even more. This means that transactions are carried out under the presumption that no dependencies exist. This effective strategy lessens bottlenecks and enables greater parallelization. However, the engine uses collaborative scheduling and validation, dynamically identifying and managing dependencies across transactions, to assure deterministic results.

  • AptosBFT Consensus: The Aptos blockchain is powered by a consensus algorithm known as AptosBFT. It makes use of a Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) method that divides consensus-related duties from transaction execution and storage. The network's effectiveness and speed are greatly improved by this division.

The capacity of AptosBFT to reach sub-second finality is one of its outstanding accomplishments. Typically, transactions are completed in a matter of seconds, providing users with quick confirmation. Additionally, the system can withstand malicious behavior from up to one-third of the validator nodes, assuring the stability and security of the network.

  • Move Programming Language: The Aptos blockchain's smart contracts are constructed using the Move programming language. Move provides a distinctive method for secure and resource-wise contract execution. On the Move Virtual Machine (MoveVM), it places a focus on safe resource management, access control, and predictable execution.

Aptos strikes a balance between security and performance with Move. The Move Prover, a formal smart contract verifier, gives assurance that contracts follow the logic and behavior they are supposed to. This formal verification procedure reduces vulnerabilities and improves trust in the execution of smart contracts.

  • State Synchronization Protocol: Synchronizing the state of the blockchain between nodes is a crucial component of blockchain efficiency that is addressed by Aptos' State Synchronisation Protocol. Performance, security, and user experience are all enhanced by this protocol.

The protocol avoids needless transaction execution and lowers computational costs by enabling state delta syncing. Instead of depending only on state deltas, blockchain snapshot syncing enables peers to quickly get the most recent state. Prefetching data from peers also reduces network latencies, accelerating synchronization.

The protocol also has methods for reputation management and peer monitoring, which enhance network security by identifying and rating peer behavior.

  • Validator and Full Nodes: Validator nodes and complete nodes, each with specific roles, make up Aptos' network architecture.

However, validator nodes are essential for governance and consensus. They take part in transaction confirmation and blockchain integrity monitoring. Holders of tokens have the option to stake them in validators, giving them a stake-weighted vote on governance and consensus decisions. The network's decentralized character is strengthened by this configuration.

The re-execution and verification of transactions are performed by full nodes. They are in charge of confronting harmful actors and storing the complete transaction history. While validator full nodes directly communicate with validator nodes for increased security, public full nodes provide low-latency access to the network.

Comparative Analysis

In contrast to Solana, Aptos displays reliability through redundancy, whereas Solana has had network issues. Aptos' stability and scalability are enhanced by its parallel processing and modular architecture.

Despite the fact that Aptos is faster and more scalable than Ethereum, Ethereum has an advantage because of its more enduring stability and decentralized network. Aptos performs better than Avalanche in terms of TPS and transaction time, with greater scalability and fewer gas problems.

Characteristics of Aptos Blockchain

  • Scalability. Due to the implementation of a parallel execution engine and sharding methods, Aptos breaks the bounds of conventional blockchains. This innovative strategy enables Aptos to successfully manage numerous transactions at once, providing a level of scalability that can meet the increasing demands of a rapidly developing digital environment.
  • Reliability. The foundation of Aptos' design philosophy is dependability. Aptos makes sure that its network is resistant to any failures by carefully synchronizing nodes and putting redundancy mechanisms in place. Users and enterprises alike gain confidence from the uninterrupted operations of this fortified architecture.
  • Security. In the digital world, security is of utmost importance, and Aptos addresses it squarely. Aptos orchestrates transactions that are not only quick but also impervious to tampering and harmful assaults thanks to the powerful Move programming language. This innovative security strategy creates a solid foundation of trust that promotes safe and easy transactions.
  • Modularity . The modular architecture of Aptos gives developers the agility they need to quickly implement cutting-edge web3 technologies and functionality. This adaptability translates to quick improvements, ensuring that the blockchain stays in touch with the sector's constantly changing requirements. Aptos' modularity develops into a tactical advantage that positions it for upcoming difficulties through component-level testing and careful threat modeling.
  • Web3 Adoption. The ambitious goal of Aptos goes beyond technology and seeks to hasten the mainstream implementation of web3 developments. Aptos fills the knowledge gap by reinventing Web2's cloud architecture within a decentralized framework, making blockchain technology approachable and appealing to a wider audience.

Aptos's Future

Aptos Labs set out on a quest to realize their blockchain vision under the direction of industry veterans who honed their expertise at Meta (formerly Facebook). The idea attracted significant finance, displaying the trust of investors. Aptos asserts its place as a serious participant in the blockchain industry by promising innovation through scalability, safety and upgradeability.